Гибриды клеток мыши и человека

 Для этих экспериментов также использовались гибриды клеток мыши и человека, но в данном случае клетки иммунной системы мыши были раковыми — их получили из животного, пораженного злокачественной плазмаиитомой. Помимо полного набора хромосом мыши каждая гибридная клетка содержала хотя бы по одной хромосоме из клеток лимфомы Беркитта человека.

Как мы и ожидали, гибридные клетки с нормальной, не затронутой транслокацией 14-й хромосомой содержали гены антител, а в клетках с нормальной 8-й хромосомой их не было (см. иллюстрацию на с. 23). Напротив, гибриды, в которых 14-я хромосома претерпела транслокацию (хромосома 14<7+), содержали последовательности ДНК, кодирующие только константные участки тяжелых цепей иммуноглобулинов, но были лишены генов вариабельной области. Гены вариабельных участков имелись в 8-й хромосоме, которая образовалась в результате транслокации. Эти результаты говорят о том, что 14-я хромосома разрывается между генами, кодирующими вариабельные и константные участки тяжелых цепей, и гены вариабельной области перемешаются в 8-ю хромосому. Таким образом, локус 14-й хромосомы, кодирующий тяжелую цепь, принимает непосредственное участие в транслокациях, характерных для лимфомы Беркитта.

ИТАК, стало ясно, что механизм развития лимфомы Беркитта связан с генами, ответственными за образование антител. Следующий шаг к разгадке природы этой связи был сделан при изучении онкогенов. Поскольку при лимфоме Беркитта поражаются В-клетки, особый интерес у нас вызывал онкоген, обозначаемый статус, — онкоген человека, сходный с онкогеном v-myc, который вызывает лимфому В-клеток у цыплят при заражении их вирусом миелоцитома- тоза птиц.

В совместной работе с Р. Далла- Фавера и Р. Галло из Национального института рака мы воспользовались высокой степенью сходства между генами туе человека и вируса птиц и получили пробу, с помощью которой можно было идентифицировать клетки, содержащие онкоген с-тус человека.

 

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