Интенсивность обмена веществ и энергии в организме

Интенсивность обмена веществ и энергии в организме как в целом разумно представить в виде суммы интенсивностей метаболизма в его основных тканях, определенных in vitro. Культура любой ткани мыши дышит интенсивнее по сравнению с тканью крысы, а ткани последней в свою очередь потребляют больше кислорода на единицу веса, чем ткани собаки. Спустимся по ступенькам организации на молекулярный уровень. Концентрация гемо

глобина у млекопитающих не зависит от размеров тела, а концентрация цитохромоксидазы, ключевого дыхательного фермента, так же как и удельная интенсивность метаболизма, обратно пропорциональна весу тела. Установлено, что количество митохондрий (митохондрии — это небольшие клеточные органеллы, в которых находятся ферменты, осуществляющие окисление) в клетках печени в расчете на единицу веса зависит от размеров тела. Это установлено для крыс, кроликов, овец и крупного рогатого скота. То же самое справедливо и в отношении митохондрий мышечных клеток (экспериментальные данные имеются более чем для десяти видов). Общее количество митохондрий в организме млекопитающего тем больше, чем выше интенсивность метаболизма, причем наблюдается систематическое отставание от простой пропорциональности. Печеночная клетка, которую мы в самом начале вообразили размышляющей на палубе корабля, неодинакова у мыши и у человека: в мышиных клетках митохондрий больше.

На организменном уровне подоплека закона, описываемого кривой «от мыши до слона», наилучшим образом раскрыта одним из авторов книги «О размерах тел в природе» — Т. Мак- Магоном. Этот вопрос рассматривается и в книге Шмидт-Нильсена. Объяснение, как это ни странно, следует из одного требования, а именно: механическая нагрузка, обусловленная весом тела, должна быть ограничена пределами прочности на изгиб. Таким образом можно предсказать диаметр и длину костей у копытных животных (а кстати, и пропорции деревьев).

 

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