Извержения вулканов на Венере

Облачный покров препятствует прямым наблюдениям и обнаружению современных потоков лавы или выделений газов и пыли. Поэтому нельзя доказать, что извержения вулканов на Венере происходят в настоящее время, как это удалось сделать для Ио (спутника Юпитера) с помощью великолепных фотографий, полученных с американского космического аппарата «Вояджер». Однако на Земле при мощных извержениях, например подобных извержению вулкана Эль-Чичон в 1982 г., в верхнюю атмосферу выбрасывается огромное количество серу содержащих газов и аэрозольных частиц, где они остаются в течение многих месяцев и даже лет. Если на Венере также происходят мощные извержения, то их «следы» должны оставаться в верхней атмосфере.

По-видимому, это так и есть. Одним из наиболее удивительных открытий было сообщение Л. Эспозито из Колорадского университета в Боулдере, сделанное в прошлом году. По данным измерений на ультрафиолетовом спектрометре со спутника «Пионер-Венера», содержание диоксида серы и аэрозольных частиц серной кислоты в надоблачной атмосфере снизилось на 90% за период с 1978 по 1983 г. В 1978 г. содержание аэрозоля намного превышало то, которое ожидалось на основании данных, полученных за предыдущие 15 лет наземных наблюдений; аналогичное аномальное высокое содержание аэрозоля, вероятно, можно отнести к концу 50-х годов. J1. Эспозито предполагает, что грандиозные вулканические извержения в конце 50-х и 70-х годов привели к прямому выбросу газообразного диоксида серы в атмосферу. Затем диоксид серы превращается в серную кислоту, сток которой осуществляется в нижней атмосфере, а аномально высокое содержание SO-, и аэрозольных частиц в надоблачной атмосфере снижается до обычного.

Мне кажется, что нет необходимости предполагать грандиозный выброс вулканического газа и пыли до высоты 70 км (вплоть до верхней границы облаков). Вряд ли такое явление может действительно произойти. Даже если горячие вулканические газы непосредственно не достигают надоблачной атмосферы, энергия конвекции атмосферных масс, вызванной мощным вулканическим извержением, будет распространяться вверх в форме интенсивных гравитационных волн с возрастающей амплитудой. Такие волны будут деформироваться в пределах облачного слоя, подобно тому как океанские волны разбиваются о берег.



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