Подводные жилища

Подводные жилища стали первым практическим применением этой идеи. Акванавты там спали, готовили себе пищу и отдыхали. (Иногда они могли отправиться на ловлю омаров, чтобы разнообразить свой рацион.) С обеспечивающего судна, находящегося на поверхности, акванавтам подавали пищу, воду, электроэнергию, дыхательную смесь (которой они должны были дышать, выходя из «дома»), передавали информацию, а в случае необходимости и оказывали помощь. Во время шторма эта связь оказывалась под угрозой, но в то же время быстро провести декомпрессию по-прежнему было опасно.

Увеличение масштабов подводных работ в прошлые десятилетия, связанное с добычей нефти и газа на морском дне, стимулировало и развитие «подводной жизни». Однако в наше время «акклиматизация» после работы происходит на поверхности в специальных барокамерах на судне или плавучей платформе. Водолазы живут и спят в условиях высокого давления, но только на палубе — в декомпрессионной камере. На дно они опускаются в своего рода водолазном колоколе, в котором поддерживается то же давление, что и в барокамере (и которое ожидает их на дне). С наступлением ночи или в случае, когда начинает портиться погода, все возвращаются на корабль в свои «каюты». Это дорогостоящая, но зато безопасная методика.

Похоже, впрочем, что и она скоро отойдет в прошлое. Водолазам на смену приходят роботы, с каждым годом все более ловкие, послушные воле человека, вооруженные телевизионными камерами (по крайней мере для работ на глубине более ста метров их преимущества очевидны). Широкое распространение получили и небольшие аппараты для глубоководного погружения (рассчитанные на одного-двух человек), внутри которых поддерживаются нормальное давление и состав воздуха. Недалек тот день, когда метод, использующий декомпрессию на поверхности, станет такой же редкостью, как и обитание в подводных домах. Вероятно, человек будет продолжать работать на небольших глубинах, так что время декомпрессии не будет превышать двух суток.

 

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