Породы поверхности Венеры

Породы поверхности Венеры содержат серу в сравнительно высокой концентрации, однако содержание остальных элементов близко к найденным в некоторых земных базальтах вулканического происхождения.

Геологический цикл серы начинается с продуцирования серу содержащих газов, в частности карбонилсульфида и сероводорода, при протекании термохимических реакций минерала пирита с С02, Н20 и СО. Находясь в атмосфере, газы многократно участвуют в процессах, определяющих быстрый и медленный атмосферные циклы. Оба цикла связаны между собой фотохимическими реакциями, что в результате приводит к окислению восстановленных соединений с образованием диоксида серы, поэтому SOz накапливается в атмосфере в количестве, превышающем его равновесное содержание. Происходит сток диоксида серы в кору, где он накапливается в форме сульфата кальция — продукта взаимодействия S02 с СО, и СаО. В дальнейшем, через сотни или даже миллионы лет, сульфат кальция поступает в глубокие зоны коры, где реагирует с FeO с образованием пирита. На этом геологический цикл замыкается.

По данным Ю. А. Суркова и его сотрудников, породы Венеры содержат довольно много кальция и значительно меньше серы. Это свидетельствует о том, что кальций в породах в основном входит в состав силикатов (в виде СаО) и карбонатов, а не сульфатов. В породах поверхности всегда находится СаО, и, как только содержание SO, в атмосфере превысит его равновесную концентрацию, начинается самопроизвольная реакция связывания кальция в коре в виде CaS04. Следовательно, сток диоксида серы из атмосферы в кору осуществляется постоянно путем его поглощения оксидом кальция. Присутствие S02 в атмосфере в количестве, в 10 раз превышающем его равновесную концентрацию, можно объяснить только сравнительно недавним (в геологическом масштабе времени) поступлением в атмосферу серу содержащих газов.

 

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