Породы Венеры

Концентрация 40Аг в атмосфере Венеры составляет около 1/3 земной, а источник аргона — радиоактивный калий-40 (^К) — в породах Венеры содержится приблизительно в том же количестве, что и на Земле. Отсюда следует, что интенсивность дегазации на обеих планетах была по крайней мере сопоставимой. Однако присутствие в атмосфере Венеры С02, азота и 40Аг не может считаться доказательством дегазации в современную эпоху: эти газы относительно устойчивы и могут сохраняться в атмосфере в течение геологического времени. Для поиска более надежных аргументов в пользу современного вулканизма следует обратить внимание на облака и серу содержащие газы, из которых они формируются.

ДАЖЕ на Венере сера относится к микрокомпонентам атмосферы: серу содержащие газы — «родоначальники» облаков — составляют 0,02%, а сами облачные частицы — всего 0,00002%, тем не менее облака оказывают значительное влияние на венерианский климат. Облачный слой отражает почти 4/5 приходящей солнечной радиации, особенно в красной и желтой частях спектра. В результате этого Венера поглощает гораздо меньше солнечной энергии, чем Земля, несмотря на то, что находится ближе к Солнцу. Что касается той части солнечной радиации, которая не рассеивается атмосферой, то 2/3 ее поглощается облачным слоем в ультрафиолетовой и ближней инфракрасной областях спектра и лишь 1/3 достигает нижней атмосферы и поверхности планеты. (Если бы облака отсутствовали, то поверхность Вене

ры была бы еще более горячей.) На Земле возникла противоположная ситуация: 2/3 солнечного излучения поглощается поверхностью.

Имеются косвенные, но вполне убедительные свидетельства того, что преобладающим компонентом облаков на Венере являются капли концентрированной серной кислоты (75% по массе).

 

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