Станция «Венера-15»

С помощью радаров на борту станций «Венера-15» и «Венера-16» получают изображения с горизонтальным разрешением 1—2 км, в то время как спутник «Пионер-Венера» давал снимки с максимальным разрешением всего лишь до 30 км. Однако с помощью советских спутников будет за- картировано лишь около 1/3 поверхности планеты, исключая большую часть области Бета. Следующий крупный шаг в изучении поверхности Венеры будет сделан после запуска космического аппарата “Venus Radar Mapper”, который НАСА намечает осуществить в 1988 г.; в результате радарной съемкой с разрешением 0,2 км будет охвачена вся поверхность планеты.

Обнаружены ли на Венере действующие вулканы? На этот вопрос нельзя ответить только на основании изучения радарных изображений. Поскольку непосредственно наблюдать пока вулканические извержения невозможно, для ответа на этот вопрос необходимо знать химический состав венерианской коры и атмосферы.

Первая интересная информация о химии венерианской коры поступила в 1975 г. после посадки советских спускаемых аппаратов «Венера-8», «Венера-9» и «Венера-10». Эти аппараты, оснащенные детекторами гамма-излучения, измерили содержание радиоактивных элементов — калия, урана и тория — в породах Венеры . Несмотря на значительные вариации их концентраций в различных местах посадки радиоактивные элементы, по-видимому, присутствуют в венерианских породах примерно в том же количестве, что и в земных континентальных породах. Поскольку радиоактивный распад служит главным

источником тепла, поступающего из недр планеты, по данным, полученным с помощью спускаемых аппаратов серии «Венера», можно сделать вывод, что количество тепла, генерируемое в недрах Венеры, примерно совпадает с оценкой теплового потока из недр Земли.

 

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