Сток серной кислоты

 Быстрый цикл начинается с окисления диоксида серы до серной кислоты под воздействием ультрафиолетового излучения и протекает в средней и верхней атмосфере (выше нижней границы облачного слоя расположенной на высоте 50 км). Катализатором реакций окисления служат соединения хлора и водорода, образующиеся при фотодиссоциации хлористого водорода. Сток серной кислоты осуществляется в горячей нижней атмосфере (ниже облаков), где ее капли испаряются. В качестве продукта разложения серной кислоты появляется триоксид серы, который вступает в термохимическую реакцию с монооксидом углерода. Эта реакция приводит к регенерации углекислого газа и диоксида серы. При протекании быстрого цикла молекула серы совершает круговорот примерно в течение года.

Ход медленного цикла серы определяется образованием серной кислоты и элементарной серы при фотохимическом окислении карбонилсульфида и сероводорода в надоблачной атмосфере и облачном слое. В нижней атмосфере обе восстановленные формы серу содержащих газов могут окисляться с образованием серы, и возможно, диоксида серы (под воздействием пропускаемого облаками излучения в ближней ультрафиолетовой области). Важным элементом медленного цикла следует считать продуцирование элементарной серы, которая ответственна за поглощение ультрафиолетового излучения в пределах облачного слоя. В горячей нижней атмосфере H2S04, S02 и элементарная сера восстанавливаются до H2S и COS при взаимодействии с молекулярным водородом и монооксидом углерода. Для завершения медленного цикла, вероятно, требуется период времени около десяти лет, поскольку до того, как становится возможной регенерация восстановленных форм серы, последняя попадает как бы в ловушку: при протекании быстрого цикла в течение нескольких лет сера находится в окисленном состоянии.

Общее содержание соединений серы в атмосфере (следовательно, и

мощность облаков из аэрозоля серной кислоты) определяется взаимодействием атмосферы и коры в геологическом цикле. Для объяснения этого процесса в настоящее время вполне достаточно данных. Наиболее ценная информация поступила с советских спускаемых аппаратов «Венера-13» и «Венера-14», на борту которых были установлены рентгеновские спектрометры. На основании полученных данных Ю. А. Сурков и его коллеги из Института геохимии и аналитической химии им. В. И. Вернадского АН СССР недавно впервые определили элементный состав пород венерианской коры (при таком методе анализа получают характеристический флуоресцентный спектр элемента при воздействии на образец рентгеновского излучения).

 

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