Структура области Бета

Структура области Бета характеризуется наличием отдельных гор, куполов и рифтов, поэтому оба механизма могли определять тепловой поток в этом регионе. Из общих соображений кажется весьма маловероятным, чтобы такой медленный процесс, как обычное остывание, мог быть единственной формой потери тепла. Необходимость существования того или иного адекватного механизма потери тепла, по-видимому, является достаточно сильным, но не однозначным аргументом в пользу активного вулканизма на Венере.

Вулканизм представляет собой механизм дегазации вещества недр планеты. Земные вулканы выделяют в атмосферу углекислый газ (С02), водяной пар, серу содержащие газы, а также продукты радиоактивного распада — изотопы инертных газов аргона-40 (адАг) и гелия-4 (4Не). Эти газы обнаружены в атмосфере Венеры с помощью зондов «Пионер-Венера» и спускаемых аппаратов «Венера- 11», «Венера-12», «Венера-13», «Венера- 14».

Вулканическая дегазация недр планеты на раннем этапе ее эволюции считается главным источником как земной, так и венерианской атмосферы. Однако эти атмосферы существенно различаются: если венерианская состоит на 96% из углекислого газа, то земная — на 78% из азота. Частично различия можно объяснить существованием на Земле океанов, в которых происходит сток С02 с последующим его захоронением в виде карбонатов в земной коре. Если на Венере когда-либо и существовали океаны, то они должны были испариться, а высвободившийся водород — диссипировать в космическое пространство.

При сравнении атмосфер Земли и Венеры следует иметь в виду, что карбонаты земной коры должны учитываться при подсчетах общих запасов С02, в то же время надо принять во внимание, что масса венерианской атмосферы в 90 раз больше земной. По- видимому, общее содержание СО, и азота на Венере примерно на 30% меньше, чем на Земле.



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