Транслокации хромосом и рак

Транслокации хромосом и рак у человека

Хромосомы в клетках иммунной системы иногда обмениваются сегментами ДНК. Этот процесс может активировать гены, вызывающие рак, если в результате рядом с ними оказываются последовательности ДНК, которые усиливают их активность

Каждая клетка человеческого организма содержит онкогены — гены, которые потенциально способны вызывать рак. По- видимому, они имеют нормальные функции и выполняют их до тех пор, пока в клетке не произойдет злокачественное изменение. Что же превращает онкоген из обычного компонента генетического аппарата клетки в источник раковой, или неопластической, трансформации?

За последнее десятилетие было обнаружено несколько механизмов активации онкогенов . В некоторых случаях онкоген активируется при точковой мутации; изменение, вызванное облучением или химическим канцерогеном, затрагивает при этом небольшой участок гена. Другой способ активации онкогена заключается в амплификации, когда онкоген многократно реплицируется, так что в одной и той же клетке оказывается по нескольку его активных копий. Когда это случается, экспрессия гена может достигать ненормально высокого уровня; другими словами, клетка может синтезировать избыточное количество белка, который кодируется онкогеном. Даже белки, необходимые для нормального функционирования клетки, могут приводить к возникновению рака, если синтезируются в больших количествах .

Онкоген может также активироваться, включившись в состав ретро- вируса (ретровирусы — это группа вирусов, у которых генетическим материалом является РНК, а не ДНК). При заражении животного попавший в клетку ретровирус может захватить из ее генома не активированный онкоген, который становится частью генома вирусной частицы и ее потомков. Такой процесс иногда приводит к активации онкогена, и тогда последующее заражение этим штаммом ретровируса может индуцировать неопластическую трансформацию в других клетках. В настоящее время не ясно, какую роль играют описанные механизмы активации в развитии рака у человека, поскольку лишь немногие раковые опухоли человека содержат онкогены, активированные каким- либо из перечисленных способов.

 

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