Вымершие гены

Эволюционная история видов может быть восстановлена на основании анализа ДНК. Из тканей животного одного вида выделяются фрагменты генетического материала и сравниваются с фрагментами ДНК другого вида. Степень совпадения последовательностей нуклеотидов является мерой того, насколько давно в ходе эволюции разошлись данные два вида. Как следует из статьи, опубликованной в журнале "Nature" сотрудниками лаборатории А. Уилсона в Калифорнийском университете в Беркли, такой подход возможно применить не только к ныне живущим, но и к исчезнувшим видам. Авторам удалось определить последовательность нуклеотидов в двух небольших фрагментах ДНК квагги — одного из видов зебр, который был истреблен еще к 1883 г.

Р. Хигути и его коллеги провели анализ на небольшом сохранившемся образце мышечной ткани квагги, погибшей более 140 лет назад. Извлеченная из него ДНК была не ядерной, а митохондриальной. (Митохондрии — это небольшие окруженные мембраной клеточные органеллы; в них имеется собственная ДНК и происходит часть метаболизма клетки.) Организм получает митохондрии и соответственно митохондриальную ДНК непосредственно от материнской половой клетки. Так как в животное переходит митохондриальная ДНК только от одного родителя, а не от двух, то в отличие от ядерной ДНК она не «перетасовывается» при передаче от поколения к поколению. Поэтому изменения в ДНК митохондрий могут служить своего рода эволюционными часами.

Хигути и его коллеги определили последовательность нуклеотидов в двух фрагментах (длиной 117 и 112 нуклеотидов) митохондриальной ДНК из тканей квагги. Сравнив эти фрагменты с аналогичными участками ДНК из митохондрий современной горной зебры, ученые обнаружили разницу только в 12 «точках» нуклеотидной последовательности; в молекулах же белков, кодируемых этими участками ДНК, обнаруженные различия должны были привести к замене лишь двух аминокислот. По-видимому, у квагги и горной зебры был общий предок. Предварительные результаты, полученные на ДНК других видов зебр, свидетельствуют о том, что, например, бурчеллова зебра, возможно, является еще более близким родственником квагги. Сотрудники лаборатории Уилсона хотели определить, действительно ли квагга и горная зебра ближе к настоящим лошадям, чем к другим видам зебр (бурчелловой зебре и зебре Грэ- ви), как предполагает Д. Беннет из Канзасского университета. Хигути считает, что результаты их работы опровергают эту гипотезу.

Скрытые измерения пространства-времени

Пространство-время, которое обычно считают четырехмерным, может иметь семь дополнительных измерений. Такие одиннадцатимерные математические конструкции, которые изучаются в настоящее время, могли бы послужить основой для единого описания четырех фундаментальных сил природы.

 

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