Аналогия с феррозондом

Аналогия с феррозондом стала особенно популярна после того, как было установлено, что некоторые бактерии способны определять вертикальное направление с помощью имеющихся у них микроскопических кристалликов магнетита. Подобные частицы были обнаружены у многих животных, но их функции пока не ясны. Ч. Уолкотт, пионер в этой области исследований, предпринял в Корнеллском университете поиски магниторецептора; он полагает, что эта структура должна находиться в голове птицы, и пытается обнаружить ее гистологическими методами. Несколько лет назад он провел магнитометрические опыты, в которых намагничивали голову голубя в сильном поле. Первые результаты оказались интересными, но в 80 последующих экспериментах воспроизвести их не удалось. В настоящее время Уолкотт и его коллеги изучают под микроскопом окрашенные препараты головы голубя. Они анализируют серийные срезы в направлении от клюва к затылку и уже обнаружили три области, в которых постоянно встречается железо. По сравнению с многочисленными тонкими, но не говорящими ничего определенного исследованиями этот поистине героический по своей трудоемкости эксперимент выделяется прямотой и однозначностью результатов.

Мозаика складывается в более или

менее целостную картину, несмотря на то, что многих кусочков недостает, а некоторые лежат не совсем правильно. Бейкер описывает и свои собственные исследования — поиски магниторецепторов у человека. Наблюдаемые эффекты столь незначительны и на них сказывается так много посторонних явлений — магнитные бури, наличие волокон полистирола в ткани одежды (возможно, из-за статических электрических зарядов) и даже положение тела испытуемого во время сна, — что самые тщательные эксперименты оказываются неточными из-за артефактов, которые пока крайне трудно учесть или устранить. Исследователям, видно, понадобится больше времени, чтобы добиться истины от человека, чем от безгласного голубя.

В этой прекрасной книге множество диаграмм и цифр, в которых, правда, не всегда легко разобраться. Она снабжена предметным и авторским указателями и подробным списком литературы. Автор завершает свой труд утверждением, что все основные пути в исследовании механизмов навигации у птиц уже намечены, но ведут они в огромный и запутанный лабиринт, где нам предстоит еще многое узнать о животных и человеке.

 

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