Дифракции света

Фотоаппарат должен иметь объектив, который

фокусирует изображение дифракционной картины на пленку. Мои попытки поставить такой опыт оканчивались неудачно, поскольку – свет, рассеянный на бумаге, «размывал» не очень четкую картину дифракционных колец.

Я попытался применить другой способ. Выключив комнатное освещение и убрав линзу, я установил фотоаппарат прямо в области тени шарика и снял изображение с разными выдержками. Для пленки с чувствительностью 400 ед. ASA наилучшие результаты получались при самых малых выдержках — 1/1000 и 1/500. Для учебных целей я использую цветную обратимую пленку чувствительностью 400 ед. ASA и слайды показываю через проектор.

Дифракционные кольца возникают в результате дифракции света на границе шарика. Допустим, шарик освещается светом с плоским волновым фронтом. Когда фронт достигает шарика, часть воображаемых вторичных волновых источников экранируется шариком. Оставшиеся источники излучают волны, которые, налагаясь друг на друга, уже не могут создать прежний волновой фронт. В результате часть света попадает в область тени шарика.

Все вторичные источники на волновом фронте излучают в фазе. Фазы, с которыми эти вторичные волны достигают экрана, и результат их взаимного наложения зависят от проходимых вторичными волнами путей. Излучение, приходящее в центральную точку области тени от одного края шарика, проходит ровно такой же путь, как и излучение, идущее от противоположного края шарика. Таким образом, обе волны подходят к экрану в одной фазе и взаимно усиливаются, создавая светлое пятно.

Пятно окружено темным кольцом, возникающим за счет взаимного погашения волн. Рассмотрим любую точку темного кольца. Путь, который проходит излучение от одного края шарика до этой точки, больше, чем путь излучения, идущего от другого края шарика. Разница в пути приводит к тому, что волны приходят в точку в противо- фазе. Поэтому данная точка оказывается темной.

Несколько дальше от центра располагается светлое кольцо. И в этом случае излучение, идущее в каждую точку кольца от одного края шарика, проделывает больший путь, чем излучение от противоположного края. Однако разница в длинах путей на этот раз такова, что волны приходят в фазе. (Одна волна отстает от другой ровно на один период.) Обычно вокруг центрального светлого пятна располагается несколько светлых и темных колец.

Картину можно объяснить и используя понятие зон Френеля. Шарик закрывает первые зоны. (В наших экспериментах их число составляло несколько сотен.) К поверхности шарика примыкает первая открытая зона. В центр тени приходит свет от этой зоны и от других зон, расположенных дальше от шарика.

 

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