Единый принцип пространственного расположения сооружений

Систематические раскопки, производившиеся в последние тридцать лет, выявили пространственную структуру позднепалеолитических поселений. Поселения эти довольно большие, некоторые из них занимали плошаль до 10 тыс. м2. Культурный слой, в котором обнаруживают предметы, связанные с деятельностью человека, имеет мощность от 5 до 20 см. В каждом поселении имеется от 3 до 6 жилищ, сложенных из костей мамонта. Поперечный размер жилищ — от 4 до 7 м, их внутренняя площадь составляет 8 — 24 м2.

Единого принципа пространственного расположения сооружений из костей мамонта не существует. В некоторых местах, в том числе возле с. Мезин, жилища расположены в ряд. В других местах, например в Добраничевке, они расположены по кругу. В некоторых случаях жилища имеют прямоугольную схему расположения.

Во многих жилищах из костей мамонта имеются внутренние очаги с остатками костного угля, производственные участки, где жители обрабатывали кости и кремень, превращая их в орудия труда и другие предметы. На

территории между жилишами находились хозяйственные ямы, наружные производственные участки и очаги. Наружные очаги, подобно внутренним, также содержат много костного угля. В Межириче, где проводится наша основная работа, находится 4 жилища из костей мамонта, обнаруженные между 1966—1978 гг. Как и в других местах, каждое жилише имеет цоколь, выложенный из крупных костей мамонта. Кости не укладывались произвольно, а использовались как элементы конструкции. Черепа размешались через определенные промежутки по кругу для образования цоколя и внутреннего основания стены. Расположение черепов в стенах неодинаково. В Межириче и Добраничевке черепа мамонтов расположены альвеолами бивней вниз (альвеола — часть черепа, служившая основанием бивней). В Мезине черепа укладывались затылочными частями вниз. В обоих случаях плоская передняя часть черепа обращена внутрь жилища. Внутреннюю часть иногда выкладывали тазовыми костями и лопатками. Основание стены снаружи декорировали костями, уложенными особым образом. В Межириче каждое жилище отличалось специфической картиной внешней обкладки. В жилище 1, имевшем круглую форму, наружная часть стены состояла из нижних челюстей. 95 челюстей расположены поверх черепов подбородочными выступами вниз в виде елочного орнамента.

В жилище 2 наружная часть выполнена из длинных костей конечностей (бедренных и больших берцовых), расположенных вертикально. В жилище 3 представлены кости разного типа. В его структуре нет завершенности, свойственной остальным трем жилищам; возможно, оно было недостроено.

 

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