Энергетический барьер

В результате энергетический барьер, образовавшийся в зоне перехода, понизится (см. верхний рисунок слева) и электроны, преодолевая барьер, начнут переходить из л-области в р- область, где они рекомбинируют с дырками, спонтанно испуская фотоны. Аналогично переход дырок из области в л-область и последующая их рекомбинация с электронами также будут сопровождаться испусканием фотонов. Если приложенное напряжение достаточно велико, чтобы почти сгладить энергетический барьер, число носителей тока, способных преодолеть барьер, станет большим и их результирующий поток приведет к распределению носителей, называемому инверсной заселенностью. Более важным является то обстоятельство, что число фотонов, испущенных в окрестности перехода, называемой активным слоем полупроводникового кристалла, становится настолько велико, что осуществляется вынужденное излучение. Когда ток выключается, испускание фотонов прекращается. Следовательно, полупроводник испускает импульсы света в ответ на импульсы тока: в этом смысле он является преобразователем электрических сигналов в оптические сигналы.

Чтобы прибор, построенный на описываемом физическом принципе, был лазером, необходимо выполнить еще одно условие: две грани кристалла, перпендикулярные р — «переходу, должны быть плоскими и строго параллельными . Тогда грани образуют пару полупрозрачных зеркал, которые отражают фотоны обратно в активный слой. Когда фотоны проходят в этой области, они индуцируют лавинный процесс вынужденного излучения, т.е. можно сказать, что они усиливают свет. (Слово «лазер» — по-английски «laser» — аббревиатура слов английского выражения «light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation», означающего «усиление света вынужденным излучением».) Фотоны, покинувшие полупроводник через полупрозрачные зеркала, образуют лазерный пучок.

 

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