Физические свойства гидратированной клейковины

Физические свойства гидратированной клейковины обеспечивают удержание в тесте газов, образующихся при брожении на различных стадиях приготовления хлеба. Это создает в хлебобулочных изделиях мелкую, однородную структуру пористости и мягкую упругую текстуру. Из муки, смолотой из других злаков, таких, как рожь и ячмень, тесто получается гораздо менее эластичным и растяжимым и не способно хорошо удерживать газы, образующиеся при брожении. В результате готовые изделия из ржи и ячменя получаются более грубыми и плотными, чем пшеничный хлеб.

Почти все хлебобулочные изделия выпекаются из дрожжевого теста. За счет образования в дрожжевом тесте газов приготовленные из него изделия получаются пористыми. В качестве

разрыхлителей теста в основном используются дрожжи и пекарские порошки. Для большинства видов хлеба, булочек, пиццы, датских пирожных, соленого печенья к пиву и многих других изделий чаше применяют дрожжи. Они вызывают сбраживание содержащихся в тесте сахаров, и за счет этого в нем образуется углекислый газ, который, выделяясь, разрыхляет тесто. Пекарский порошок содержит бикарбонат натрия и компонент, который при смешивании порошка с водой действует как кислота. Углекислый газ образуется в результате взаимодействия бикарбоната и кислотного компонента. Тесто для некоторых изделий, таких, как бисквитный кекс, разрыхляется в основном воздухом, проникающим в жир или тесто во время замеса.



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