Фундаментальная наука

С помощью сверхпроводящих линий можно будет передавать электроэнергию практически без потерь, а это в свою очередь позволит избежать нежелательного соседства потребителей с электростанциями. Сверхпроводящие магниты уже установлены в японских экспериментальных поездах; они позволяют поезду «парить» над магнитами той же полярности, расположенными на полотне дороги.

Не ясно, в каком соотношении находятся выгоды, даваемые фундаментальной наукой (включая ее культурную ценность, прямые и косвенные выгоды), и расходы на нее. Что представляется вполне очевидным, так это отсутствие прямой пропорциональной зависимости: если финансовая поддержка упадет ниже некоторого критического уровня, фундаментальная наука, по-видимому, быстро придет в упадок. При таких условиях резко уменьшится число ученых, которые могли бы заниматься активными научными исследованиями. Во многих областях из-за отсутствия компетентных заинтересованных участников заглохнут обсуждения и дискуссии, столь необходимые для прогресса науки.

Даже не располагая знаниями о том, как реагирует наука на различные виды общественной поддержки, мы все-таки можем установить критерии, которые позволяют определить соотношение капиталовложений и полезного выхода от них. Один из надежных индикаторов — это скорость, с которой увеличивается число молодых талантливых исследователей. В физических науках она упала с наивысшего уровня в 4,5 тыс. докторских степеней в год (1971) до нынешнего стабильного значения 3,5 тыс. В науках о живом абсолютное число докторов возрастает, но скорость этого роста замедлилась почти до нуля. Наихудшее положение наблюдается, по-видимому, в математике. Даже если считать вместе математиков и специалистов по информатике, то

н в этом случае оказывается, что приток новых докторов .быстро падает. Такое пренебрежение к интеллектуальным ресурсам в фундаментальной науке является непростительным упущением. Поскольку прорывы в науке и технике часто осуществляются гения- ми-одиночками, потеря даже одного человека, способного, скажем, найти средство от рака, может обойтись нам очень дорого.



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