Гидрофильные головки фосфолипидов

Гидрофильные головки фосфолипидов экспонированы на поверхности частицы, что обеспечивает растворимость ЛНП в крови или внутриклеточной жидкости. В этот гидрофильный чехол погружена одна крупная белковая молекула, называемая апопротеином В-100.

Именно апопротеин В-100 узнается рецептором ЛНП и обеспечивает связывание частицы ЛНП с клеткой. Рецептор ЛНП — гликопротеин, т.е. белок, к полипептидной цепи которого прикреплены цепочки из остатков сахаров. Этот гликопротеин пронизывает всю толщу плазматической мембраны, причем участок связывания ЛНП выступает над поверхностью клетки. Связывание происходит даже при концентрации ЛНП ниже Ю М, так что рецеп

тор может извлекать частицы ЛНП из водного окружения, даже если их там одна на миллиард молекул воды. Рецепторы связывают только те липопротсины. в состав которых входит апопротеин В-100 или родственный ему белок, называемый апопротеином Е.

Как ЛНП попадает затем внутрь клеток? В 1976 г. наш коллега Р. Андерсон показал, что рецепторы группируются в специализированных участках — там, где клеточная мембрана образует впячивания наподобие кратеров, известные под названием окаймленных пор (их называют так потому, что внутренняя поверхность мембраны в местах этих впячиваний выстлана белком клатрином). В течение нескольких минут после образования окаймленные поры втягиваются внутрь клеток и отшнуровываются от поверхности так, что образуются окруженные мембранами пузырьки, которые называют окаймленными везикулами. При этом все связанные с рецепторами молекулы ЛНП оказываются внутри клетки. Процесс попадания веществ в клетку через окаймленные поры и везикулы Андерсон и мы назвали опосредуемым рецепторами эндоцитозом. Как оказалось впоследствии, он представляет собой общий механизм, благодаря которому клетка захватывает многие крупные молекулы, и для каждой из них имеются собственные высокоспецифичные рецепторы.

 

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