Горячий более легкий расплав

Распад радиоактивных элементов, переносимых механизмом диффузии, вряд ли может служить источником нагрева. Горячий более легкий расплав начинает медленно всплывать подобно воздушному шару. Неоднородный по составу, он представляет собой сложную агрегат-

ную смесь: часть вещества остается в нерасплавленном состоянии. Вот почему лава всегда содержит множество твердых кристалликов. Поднимающейся лаве предстоит преодолеть препятствие — твердые вышележащие слои. Один из возможных механизмов аналогичен тому, который вызывает сам подъем: передача тепла может привести к плавлению этих слоев и сте- канию их вниз — процесс, напоминающий обтекание воздухом поднимающегося воздушного шара. Нерасплавленные же обломки обрушившейся «кровли» могут проваливаться сквозь поднимающийся расплав. При значительном нагреве расплав, расширяясь, способен внедряться в твердую породу, вызывая появление трещин. Трещины, заполняемые магмой, распространяются вверх, образуя множество даек. Все эти процессы полностью поддаются количественному описанию, поэтому можно предсказать, какой путь изберет магма.

Классическое деление магматических пород на граниты и базальты остается неизменным. Под гранитами обычно подразумевают породы, образованные магмой, застывшей на глубине; базальты же преобладают среди эффузивных пород, образованных магмой, излившейся на поверхность. Это весьма убедительно доказывается в статье Б. Марша (Институт Джонса Гопкинса), в которой время охлаждения расплава и кристаллизация рассматриваются как функции температуры. Затвердевание гранита начинается при относительно высоких температурах, поэтому он и застывает на глубине. Базальты же с большей вероятностью достигают поверхности, не успев остыть, и растекаются лавовым потоком. Аналогичным образом можно представить себе, как происходит поднятие базальтовой массы с большой глубины. Переплавляя окружающие породы земной коры, богатые окисью кремния, она порой рождает легкую магму, способную далеко «обогнать» исходную массу.

 

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