Интенсивный газовый выброс

Именно благодаря этому механизму у земной поверхности скопились огромные объемы кислой лавы — последствия выбросов вулканического пепла, наиболее внушительные следы взрывного вулканизма.

Взрыв всегда сопровождается интенсивным газовым выбросом. Но температура магмы недостаточно высока, чтобы превратить сколько-нибудь заметный объем породы в газ. Необходимо некоторое количество летучего вещества, каковым может стать вода, в изобилии имеющаяся у поверхности, и, возможно, двуокись углерода, поступающая из глубины. Образующаяся летучая смесь имеет сложный состав: это тяжелый разогретый псевдогаз, значительную долю которого составляют раскаленные частицы лавы. В

статье С. Киффер из Геологической службы США дан интересный физический анализ возможных видов газовых выбросов. Давление газа, вырывающегося по длинному узкому каналу, ограничивается трением. Если жерло вулкана открывается в плоский неглубокий кратер, давление струи падает вследствие бокового расширения. В обоих случаях бьющая наружу струя образует вертикальный султан (в отличие от зонтичных султанов вулканов, открытых на лишенной атмосферы Ио). Теперь мы знаем, что именно резко вытолкнутый в атмосферу псевдо- газ создает то огромное избыточное давление, которое порождает необычайное разнообразие выбросов, порой сопровождающихся появлением ударных волн. Следует сказать, что проблемы, связанные с излучением, сопутствующим выбросу, еще ждут своего решения; наблюдаемые при извержении чудовищные огненные лавины пока недостаточно изучены.

Этот раздел завершается статьей, в которой описываются результаты небезопасных экспериментов К. Волстца и Р. Мак-Квина из Лос-Аламоса. Созданные ими модели вулканов приводятся в действие сотней килограммов термита (смеси алюминиевого порошка и окиси меди). Этот вид взрывчатки не дает летучих продуктов и успешно играет в эксперименте роль магмы. Иногда к термиту добавляли воду, чтобы получить требуемый летучий компонент. По эффективности превращения химической энергии в кинетическую модель может соперничать с любым двигателем.

 

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