Из корма в пищу

Две широко применяющиеся методики осуждены в связи с вызывающим тревогу распространением передающейся резистентности к антибиотикам среди штаммов патогенных бактерий. Одна из них — назначение людям в лечебных целях больших доз антибиотиков, порой необоснованное, вторая — включение субтерапевтических количеств антибиотиков в корм животных для стимуляции прибавления веса.

Опубликованный в журнале «The New England Journal of Medicine» отчет исследователей из системы центров по изучению болезней показывает, каким образом эта порочная практика привела к вспышке вызванного резистентными бактериями пищевого отравления, в результате которого в 1983 г. в США пострадало 18 человек в четырех штатах Среднего Запада, причем зарегистрирован 1 смертельный исход.

Производители лекарств, продающие ежегодно сотни тонн антибиотиков для добавки в корм крупному рогатому скоту, свиньям и домашней птице, утверждали, что животные получают относительно низкие их дозы, которые не приводят к развитию резистентности у бактерий, населяющих животных, и что в любом случае такие бактерии, передаваясь по пищевой цепочке, вряд ли доходят до человека. Сообщение С. Холмберга, М. Остерхолма, К. Сенгера и М. Коэна говорит об обратном.

Они начали с исследования происшедшей в шт. Миннесота вспышки диареи, вызываемой бактерией Salmonella newport. У всех пациентов были обнаружены бактерии, резистентные к антибиотикам ампициллину, карбени- циллину и тетрациклину и содержавшие одинаковые плазмиды (плазмида — это отдельная от бактериальной хромосомы небольшая кольцевая ДНК, часто включающая гены устойчивости к тем или иным антибиотикам). Было показано, что у штаммов этого вида, недавно выделенных из домашних жи-

гиперхолестеролемией, но количество рецепторов ЛНП у которых понижено вследствие неподходящего питания или иных факторов. Если будет доказано, что такие лекарства предотвращают индуцированное пищей уменьшение количества рецепторов ЛНП и притом безопасны при длительном употреблении, то в один прекрасный день многие люди смогут есть свой бифштекс, не думая о том, что он сокращает им жизнь животных, тот же характер устойчивости и такая же плазмида, как и у бактерий, которые были причиной диареи у коров на молочной ферме в шт.



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