Излучение зодиакальной пыли

В противоположность точечным источникам рассмотрение протяженной составляющей излучения дает другую картину неба. На коротких волнах(12 и 25 мкм) главный вклад в инфракрасный фон дает излучение зодиакальной пыли, принадлежащей Солнечной системе. Пыль концентрируется в зодиакальной плоскости — эклиптике (плоскость планетных орбит) и ярко светится на картах, полученных со спутника ИРАС. Удивительна детальная структура этого излучения. При наибольшей яркости, как и ожидалось, в плоскости эклиптики есть также две внешние полосы, отстоящие на 9° от центральной.

С центральной полосой все ясно — вещество в плоскости эклиптики могло возникнуть из-за дробления астероидов при многократных столкновениях; труднее объяснить два гало вне плоскости. Впечатление, что вещество в этих кольцах обращается вокруг точки, находящейся над или под полюсами Солнца, является, конечно, иллюзией; частицы двигаются по орбитам, пересекающим эклиптику под углом

9° , и находятся часть времени в каждой из видимых полос. Вместо широкой полосы наблюдаются две параллельные боковые полосы, поскольку каждая частица находится больше времени вдали от эклиптики, чем вблизи нее. Вопрос состоит в том, как возник этот ансамбль пылевых частиц с таким большим наклонением орбит? Одна из гипотез — возможный распад кометы при столкновении с астероидом.

Некоторые характеристики пылевых частиц можно установить из анализа их излучения в четырех полосах длин волн. Частицы должны быть сравнительно крупными (по-видимому, диаметром около 30 мкм) и темными (отражающими лишь 10 или 20% падающего излучения). Несмотря на близость к Солнцу, они относительно холодные (температура, вероятно, около 275 К, т.е. близка к комнатной). Исходя из этого факта, можно предположить, что пыль состоит в основном из силикатов, излучающих в ИК-области эффективнее других веществ и потому остающихся холодными. Силикаты — основные компоненты большинства камнеобразных тел Солнечной системы.

 

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