Как помочь глухим

Развитие технологии микропроцессоров и миниатюрных электронных устройств сделало возможным создание еще одного искусственного органа — улитки, главного элемента механизма слуха. Ожидается, что в ближайшее время Управление по контролю качества пищевых продуктов, медикаментов и косметических средств (FDA) одобрит разработанное фирмой ЗМ одноканальное устройство и разрешит его широкое применение. Более совершенные четырех- и восьмиканальная модели, предложенные другими фирмами- изготовителями, испытываются сейчас в Медицинском центре Станфордского университета и в Калифорнийском университете в Сан-Франциско. Клинические испытания в различных медицинских учреждениях проходят в обшей сложности шесть таких изделий.

Искусственная улитка могла бы принести неоценимую пользу примерно 300 тыс. американцев, страдающих «нервной» глухотой, т.е. тем видом глухоты, когда нарушается функция слуховых рецепторов — волосковых клеток, которые находятся внутри улитки. В здоровом ухе эти клетки преобразуют звуковые колебания в электрические импульсы, которые передаются по слуховому нерву в мозг.

Основная часть одноканального прибора фирмы ЗМ — крошечный микрофон, который помещают вплотную к уху. Электрический сигнал от микрофона обрабатывается процессором и поступает в передающий блок, который укрепляют за ушной раковиной. Сигнал, формирующийся в этом блоке, передается на приемное устройство, которое вживлено под кожу. От приемной схемы этого устройства отходят два электрода. Один из них — нулевой («земля»), а второй подводится к улитке через отверстие, называемое круглым окошком.

Когда звук воздействует на микрофон, между нулевым проводом и электродом, присоединенным к улитке, появляется ток. Он и стимулирует слуховой нерв. Люди, страдающие «нервной» глухотой, могут с помощью описанного устройства слышать такие звуки, как сигнал автомобиля или шум захлопывающейся двери, а кроме того, улавливать ритм речи и изменения громкости звука. Приспособление ЗМ не рассчитано на восприятие речи. Возможно, это станет доступным благодаря усовершенствованным многоканальным приборам такого типа.



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