Кольцо Веги

Полная масса частиц типа гравия в кольце вокруг Веги составляет около I% массы Земли. Однако в нем могут находиться ненаблюдаемые более крупные тела; если распределение частиц по размерам подобно тому, которое характерно для пояса астероидов в Солнечной системе, то их полная масса примерно в 300 раз больше массы Земли. Кольцо Веги — первый пример твердого вещества, вращающегося вокруг другой звезды; оно может представлять собой раннюю стадию конденсации системы планет. Вероятно, возраст Веги только несколько сотен миллионов лет (по сравнению с 4,5 млрд. лет для Солнца), и Солнечная система могла выглядеть аналогично, когда Солнце было молодой звездой.

Вслед за открытием кольца вокруг Веги были предприняты поиски других близких звезд, которые тоже могли бы быть окружены твердым веществом. Приблизительно для 50 звезд было обнаружено избыточное ИК-излучение, которое трудно объяснить на основе другого механизма, но только в одном случае есть указания на обращающиеся вокруг звезды частицы миллиметрового размера. Другим кандидатом является Фомальгаут — звезда Южного полушария, возраст которой тоже меньше 1 млрд. лет.

ЗАДАЧА, которую успешно мог выполнить спутник И РАС, заключалась в получении статистических данных о рождении и гибели звезд. Согласно современным представлениям, звезда возникает при коллапсе плотного сгустка в облаке холодного газа и пыли. Облако не позволяет провести визуальные наблюдения ранних стадий звездной эволюции. Многие звезды «в возрасте» окружены облаком, которое создается из выделяемых ими больших количеств газа и пыли. Инфракрасные наблюдения чувствительны к тепловому излучению пыли и поэтому очень эффективны для обнаружения и изучения таких процессов.



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