Липопротеины промежуточной плотности

ЛНП являются элементом эндогенного пути, который начинается с секреции клетками печени крупных частиц липопротеинов очень низкой плотности (ЛОНП). Ядро этих частиц состоит главным образом из синтезированных в печени триглицеридов и — в меньшем количестве — из эфиров холестерола. На поверхности ЛОНП преобладают два белка — алопротеины В-100 и Е, способные связываться с рецепторами ЛНП. Когда частицы ЛОНП достигают капилляров жировой или мышечной тканей, происходит экстракция из них триглицеридов. В результате образуются частицы нового сорта — они меньше по размеру и обогащены эфирами холестерола, но в них

по-прежнему остаются апопротеины В-100 и Е. Это так называемые липопротеины промежуточной плотности (ЛПП).

У человека около половины частиц ЛПП удаляются из циркуляции быстро — в течение 2—6 ч после образования. Это происходит потому, что они очень прочно связываются с клетками печени, которые извлекают из ЛПП холестерол для образования из него новых частиц ЛОНП и для синтеза желчных кислот. Р. Махлей и Т. Иннерарити из Медицинской школы Калифорнийского университета в Сан-Франциско показали, что прочность связывания обусловлена апопротеином Е, сродство которого к рецепторам ЛНП превышает сродство апопротеина В-100. Частицы ЛПП, не захваченные печенью, остаются в системе кровообращения значительно дольше. Со временем апопротеин Е отделяется от частиц, и они превращаются теперь в ЛНП, в которых остается только один белковый компонент — апопротеин В-100. Вследствие меньшего сродства апопротеина В-100 к рецепторам ЛНП у частиц ЛНП по сравнению с частицами ЛПП время жизни гораздо больше. Частицы ЛНП сохраняются в кровяном русле в среднем в течение 2,5 суток, прежде чем связаться с рецепторами ЛНП в печени и в других тканях.

 

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