Моделирование методом фотоупругости

Точная дата этого решения неизвестна, но предполагается, что оно было принято между 1208 и 1214 гг. К тому времени большая часть нефа собора Нотр- Дам де Пари простояла около двух десятилетий и, вероятно, строители уже обратили внимание на появление трещин в кладке после сильных ветров. Решение построить в парижском соборе новые аркбутаны, примыкающие к наружным стенам на более высоком уровне, по-видимому, было принято во втором десятилетии XIII в. Раздвоение главных аркбутанов собора в Бурже, а также подъем места соединения верхней арки с простенками и добавление второго пролета контрфорсов для боковых нефов — все это можно рассматривать как меры предосторожности, предпринятые строителями собора, чтобы избежать проблем, с которыми столкнулись парижские зодчие. Поднятие места примыкания аркбутанов к верхнему ярусу стен оказалось наиболее предусмотрительной мерой. Моделирование методом фотоупругости показало, что этот участок — единственный в соборе, где могли возникать критические растягивающие напряжения, наиболее опасные при низком рас-

положении участка примыкания.

Круто поднимающиеся аркбутаны собора в Бурже были применены, таким образом, для повышения устойчивости высокого здания к сильным ветровым нагрузкам, чему способствовал опыт парижских строителей. Несмотря на экономичность этих аркбутанов и то, что они представляли собой очевидное техническое достижение, они не были использованы в конструкции других храмов высокой готики. Возможно, что контрфорсы собора в Бурже казались современникам слишком легкими и недостаточно надежными либо их сочли неприемлемыми в «высокой» архитектуре. Как бы то ни было, наиболее полное развитие идея контрфорсов получила при строительстве собора в Шартре.

Строительство собора в Шартре, начатое почти одновременно со строительством собора в Бурже, велось очень быстро и было практически

завершено в 1221 г. Принципиальное конструктивное отличие собора в Шартре состояло в значительном увеличении размера окон, освешаюших хоры. Они расположены намного ниже того уровня, на котором главные своды опираются на вертикальные опоры. Это достижение обычно объясняется решением строителей полностью реализовать возможности аркбутанов, однако с технической точки зрения система опор нефа в этом соборе более громоздка и даже неуклюжа: она состоит из эквивалента трех отдельных аркбутанов, а также ненужной подпорной стены под крышей боковых капелл, расположенной перпендикулярно главной стене.

 

94 Comments

  1. Now I am going to do my breakfast, after having my breakfast coming yet again to read additional
    news.

  2. I’m not sure why but this weblog is loading extremely slow for me.
    Is anyone else having this problem or is it a problem on my
    end? I’ll check back later and see if the problem still exists.

  3. Good day! I know this is kinda off topic but
    I was wondering if you knew where I could get a captcha plugin for my comment form?

    I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having trouble finding one?
    Thanks a lot!

  4. Magnificent site. Lots of useful info here. I am sending it to several pals ans also sharing
    in delicious. And obviously, thank you to your sweat!

  5. Heya i’m for the first time here. I found this board
    and I find It truly useful & it helped me out a lot.
    I hope to give something back and aid others like you helped
    me.

  6. Simply desire to say your article is as amazing. The clearness in your
    post is just cool and i can assume you’re an expert on this subject.
    Well with your permission allow me to grab your feed to keep updated
    with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please carry on the rewarding work.

  7. Erma:

    Today, I went to the beach with my kids. I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old
    daughter and said «You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.» She placed the shell
    to her ear and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside
    and it pinched her ear. She never wants to go back!
    LoL I know this is entirely off topic but I had to tell someone!

  8. Wow, this paragraph is good, my younger sister is analyzing these kinds
    of things, therefore I am going to inform her.

  9. 922763 619538among the finest system I know, thank you quite a lot . 667297

  10. I simply want to say I am all new to blogging and definitely liked your web site. More than likely I’m planning to bookmark your blog . You surely come with really good articles and reviews. Thanks a bunch for sharing with us your webpage.

  11. Thank you for the auspicious writeup. It in fact was a amusement account it. Look advanced to far added agreeable from you! By the way, how can we communicate?

  12. When some one searches for his vital thing, thus he/she wants to be available that in detail,
    so that thing is maintained over here.

  13. This is really interesting, You’re an overly professional blogger.

    I have joined your rss feed and look forward
    to looking for more of your excellent post. Additionally, I’ve shared your
    site in my social networks

  14. Amazing blog! Do you have any recommendations for aspiring writers?

    I’m planning to start my own site soon but I’m a little lost on everything.
    Would you propose starting with a free platform
    like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that
    I’m completely confused .. Any ideas? Thanks!

  15. Thanks, will check back BLOGURL rapidly, have bookmarked you in the meantime. NAME

  16. Great post. I used to be checking continuously BLOGURL and I’m inspired! Very helpful info specially the residual part I handle such information much. I used to be seeking this type of information for many years. Thanks and best with luck. NAME

  17. I do not even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was great. I don’t know who you are but certainly you are going to a famous blogger if you are not already ;) Cheers!

  18. The product is no tough to use, nonetheless, to empower users with the very best skill to get the most out of this product, Chris & Ken additionally put an in-depth training course in Site
    visitors Titan.

    Feel free to visit my web blog :: complete currency trader scam

  19. Information in this BBB Business Doodly Review (Minerva) is believed reliable but not
    assured as to accuracy.

  20. I really like your writing style, fantastic info, regards for putting up :D . «Kennedy cooked the soup that Johnson had to eat.» by Konrad Adenauer.

  21. Pre-sales helps scale back these assumptions and will get you shifting ahead faster with your small business.

    Feel free to visit my site; Zero Up Bonus

  22. I was going to write some random thought about your post but I think I’ll just say I liked it.

  23. You need to have a plan to get visitors to your website in a very direct approach,
    so enlist the assistance of a PR or promoting agency to assist with search engine optimization efforts and
    getting back links to your web site.

    Also visit my blog; Zero Up [basarti.com]

  24. As famous in Parts I ( right here ) and II ( and right here ) of this
    sequence, setting Zero Up Bonus a web based
    business requires gathering a lot of instruments — in essence, constructing the technical infrastructure required
    to serve your clients (and preserve your sanity).

  25. Wonderful webpage! Was looking for just the information that you have posted here

  26. I see something genuinely special in this web site.

  27. Great article and right to the point. I don’t know if this is truly the best place to ask but do you folks have any thoughts on where to get some professional writers? Thank you :)

  28. My wife and i have been really peaceful Ervin could do his researching through your precious recommendations he made from your weblog. It is now and again perplexing to simply find yourself giving away tips and hints which men and women might have been making money from. And we understand we have got the writer to appreciate because of that. The main explanations you have made, the easy website navigation, the relationships you will make it possible to foster – it is all amazing, and it’s really making our son in addition to our family consider that the theme is brilliant, and that is truly important. Many thanks for all!

  29. Thanks for the sensible critique. Me & my neighbor were just preparing to do some research about this. We got a grab a book from our local library but I think I learned more clear from this post. I am very glad to see such wonderful information being shared freely out there.

  30. Hey there! Do you use Twitter? I’d like to follow you if that would be okay. I’m definitely enjoying your blog and look forward to new posts.

  31. Internet is considered to be an amalgamation and combination of multifarious actions and features. It provides loads of opportunities to large section of people, which makes a living easy together with a great magnitude. Everything on internet seems so systematic and sophisticated, which to talk about funny mere question the functioning of the net that happens. Students search because of the courses, businessmen look within their clients, and chatters look up some new friends. Provide you . how it is all on shop.»Bachelorette» alum Jesse Csincsak is teaming with Fring for an active Q&A session with fans Thursday, November. 29. Jesse often be talking about his life since «Bachelorette» season 4, for that he was the winner, also as what he been recently doing with the show – «Bachelor Pad Beatdown,» «Bachelorette Beatdown,» blogs and very much. This will be Jesse’s first open Q&A with fans, and he promises it really is going be many of great.If you truly believe you won’t ever make anything of existence your mind will naturally be keen on activities and those that will agrees to that concept. If you believe that you’ll be an addict all you will ever have you will tend to be drawn into opportunities to participate in your dependency.On March 1st at 7pm, join Chris Hardwick and the cast and inventive team for a night one Walking Gone. Tickets for the panel are sold-out, but this really be screened to select movie theaters for your viewing enjoyment, as very well. Scheduled to appear in person at PaleyFest in the Saban Theatre in Beverly Hills are: EPs Robert Kirkman, Gale Anne Hurd, Dave Alpert, Greg Nicotero, and series stars Andrew Lincoln, Danai Gurira, Laurie Holden, Steven Yeun, Norman Reedus, Scott Wilson, and Emily Kinney.You can also get to confirm the support quality from the hundred percent perfect. The machines should have a record of great services. To confirm this, you is going to search the net for testimonials and references. You can get a analysis of the company through lots of ways. Specific websites give proper ratings to such companies, and they invite motorbike of the said company to come forward make their reviews on these internet websites. You can go there and see what other real consumers are saying in respect to the company.Often if you wish to or organizations try to produce a something they fail miserably. Often this is because people are incongruous relating to creations. Around one had they are hoping to create. But they looking to be useful. And there is always a voice that is very important of the process.Their international male clientele enjoys most effective and hottest-selling ways of communicating with Ladies of this CIS, namely email correspondence and live free sex. More than 600,000 letters are sent by our clients on a regular basis.First and foremost, protect yourself by guarding personal information: your telephone number, address, town in anyone live, when you live alone, what your work, an individual bank, your income, therefore forth.Anastasia does background checks on its women members – which is why it’s clearly #1. It’s rather than a Free Site – there is a sign-up transaction. And more fees for your Live Video and other services. However for Western men that are genuinely searching for true love and a loving, loyal bride – it’s truly worth it.So now you know some useful tips about video chat! Get out there and choose a website fitting you best, because clean-cut logic says that the best site may offer the best experience.

  32. of course like your website however you need to check the spelling on several of your posts. A number of them are rife with spelling issues and I in finding it very troublesome to tell the reality nevertheless I¡¦ll definitely come back again.

  33. Some genuinely excellent information, Glad I detected this. «The minute one utters a certainty, the opposite comes to mind.» by May Sarton.

  34. you’re in point of fact a good webmaster. The web site loading pace is incredible. It kind of feels that you are doing any distinctive trick. Moreover, The contents are masterwork. you’ve performed a excellent task in this subject!

  35. Awsome site! I am loving it!! Will be back later to read some more. I am taking your feeds also

  36. I like this web site very much, Its a rattling nice spot to read and receive info . «Misogynist A man who hates women as much as women hate one another.» by H.L. Mencken.

  37. I have recently started a blog, the information you provide on this website has helped me greatly. Thanks for all of your time & work. «There can be no real freedom without the freedom to fail.» by Erich Fromm.

  38. Great beat ! I would like to apprentice while you amend your site, how can i subscribe for a blog site? The account helped me a acceptable deal. I had been a little bit acquainted of this your broadcast provided bright clear idea

  39. Hello colleagues, its wonderful paragraph on the topic of tutoringand
    fully explained, keep it up all the time.

  40. I’ll immediately snatch your rss as I can not find your e-mail subscription hyperlink or e-newsletter service. Do you have any? Please permit me know so that I may subscribe. Thanks.

  41. I just couldn’t leave your website prior to suggesting that I really loved the usual information a person provide to your visitors? Is gonna be back continuously to investigate cross-check new posts.

  42. Its like you read my mind! You seem to know a lot about this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you can do with some pics to drive the message home a little bit, but instead of that, this is fantastic blog. A fantastic read. I will certainly be back.

  43. I’m really enjoying the design and layout of your website. It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more pleasant for me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a developer to create your theme? Superb work!

  44. Hiya, I’m really glad I have found this info. Today bloggers publish only about gossips and web and this is actually frustrating. A good web site with interesting content, this is what I need. Thanks for keeping this website, I will be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? Can not find it.

  45. Helpful information. Lucky me I discovered your site by accident, and I’m shocked why this twist of fate did not happened in advance! I bookmarked it.

  46. I like this web blog so much, saved to bookmarks. «To hold a pen is to be at war.» by Francois Marie Arouet Voltaire.

  47. You made certain fine points there. I did a search on the issue and found a good number of folks will agree with your blog.

  48. I loved as much as you’ll receive carried out right here. The sketch is attractive, your authored subject matter stylish. nonetheless, you command get got an impatience over that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come more formerly again as exactly the same nearly very often inside case you shield this hike.

  49. MetroClick specializes in building completely interactive products like Photo Booth for rental or sale, Touch Screen Kiosks and Digital Signage, and experiences. With our own hardware production facility and in-house software development teams, we are able to achieve the highest level of customization and versatility for Photo Booths, Touch Screen Kiosks and Digital Signage. MetroClick, 121 Varick St, #301, New York, NY 10013, +1 646-843-0888

  50. Its like you read my mind! You seem to know a lot about this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you can do with a few pics to drive the message home a little bit, but instead of that, this is magnificent blog. A fantastic read. I will certainly be back.

  51. Hello my family member! I wish to say that this article is amazing, nice written and include approximately all vital infos. I would like to see extra posts like this .

  52. Thank you for the sensible critique. Me and my neighbor were just preparing to do a little research on this. We got a grab a book from our area library but I think I learned more from this post. I’m very glad to see such excellent info being shared freely out there.

  53. I want to convey my love for your kindness for men and women that must have help on that question. Your special commitment to getting the message along ended up being extraordinarily productive and has without exception enabled men and women just like me to get to their dreams. Your amazing warm and friendly instruction can mean much to me and further more to my fellow workers. Many thanks; from all of us.

  54. I like the valuable information you provide in your articles. I’ll bookmark your weblog and check again here regularly. I’m quite certain I’ll learn lots of new stuff right here! Best of luck for the next!

  55. Faytech North America is a touch screen Manufacturer of both monitors and pcs. They specialize in the design, development, manufacturing and marketing of Capacitive touch screen, Resistive touch screen, Industrial touch screen, IP65 touch screen, touchscreen monitors and integrated touchscreen PCs. Contact them at http://www.faytech.us, 121 Varick Street,3rd Floor,New York, NY 10013,+1 646 205 3214

  56. It’s remarkable designed for me to have a website, which is valuable designed for my know-how.
    thanks admin

  57. I’m also commenting to make you be aware of of the perfect experience my wife’s girl found checking the blog. She figured out too many issues, most notably what it’s like to have a very effective helping spirit to let the mediocre ones quite simply completely grasp selected very confusing matters. You undoubtedly did more than readers’ expected results. I appreciate you for rendering these warm and friendly, trusted, informative and as well as unique guidance on that topic to Emily.

  58. Thank you for the auspicious writeup. It in fact was a amusement account it. Look advanced to more added agreeable from you! By the way, how could we communicate?

  59. Hello! This is my first visit to your blog!
    We are a group of volunteers and starting a new initiative
    in a community in the same niche. Your blog provided us valuable information to work on. You have done a wonderful job!

  60. I’m more than happy to uncover this page. I need to to thank you for ones time due to this fantastic read!! I definitely loved every little bit of it and I have you saved to fav to see new stuff in your website.

  61. Tory:

    These are actually great ideas in concerning blogging. You have
    touched some nice things here. Any way keep up wrinting.

  62. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say
    that I’ve really enjoyed surfing around your blog posts.
    After all I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope
    you write again soon!

  63. Gday here, just turned familiar with your wordpress bog through The Big G, and found that it is quite beneficial. I’ll take pleasure in should you decide carry on these.

  64. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wished to say that I’ve really enjoyed surfing around your blog posts. In any case I will be subscribing to your rss feed and I hope you write again very soon!

  65. Hello. magnificent job. I did not anticipate this. This is a fantastic story. Thanks!

  66. MetroClick specializes in building completely interactive products like Photo Booth for rental or sale, Touch Screen Kiosks and Digital Signage, and experiences. With our own hardware production facility and in-house software development teams, we are able to achieve the highest level of customization and versatility for Photo Booths, Touch Screen Kiosks and Digital Signage. MetroClick, 121 Varick St, #301, New York, NY 10013, +1 646-843-0888

  67. I think this is among the most important information for me. And i’m glad reading your article. But wanna remark on few general things, The site style is perfect, the articles is really excellent : D. Good job, cheers

  68. As soon as I noticed this web site I went on reddit to share some of the love with them.

  69. Wow, wonderful blog layout! How long have you been blogging for?
    you made blogging look easy. The overall look of your web site is great, as well as the content!

  70. Hello to every body, it’s my first pay a quick visit of this weblog; this webpage contains remarkable and truly
    good information for readers.

  71. Hello my loved one! I want to say that this post is amazing, nice written and include approximately all significant infos. I would like to look more posts like this .

  72. Emeryeps is a SEO(Search Engine optimzation) and Internet Marketing company. They help businesses to get traffic from various search engine and online community. They have seo experts and consultants with many years of SEO Experiences. No matter where your business is located, EmeryEPS.com can help your business to secure your highly convertible leads online.

  73. Thank you for any other informative web site. The place else may just I am getting that kind of information written in such an ideal manner? I’ve a project that I am just now running on, and I have been on the look out for such information.

  74. I have been browsing on-line more than 3 hours these days, yet I by no means discovered any fascinating article like yours. It is beautiful value enough for me. In my opinion, if all site owners and bloggers made good content material as you did, the net will be a lot more useful than ever before. «It’s all right to have butterflies in your stomach. Just get them to fly in formation.» by Dr. Rob Gilbert.

  75. Appreciate it for helping out, fantastic info. «In case of dissension, never dare to judge till you’ve heard the other side.» by Euripides.

  76. Faytech North America is a touch screen Manufacturer of both monitors and pcs. They specialize in the design, development, manufacturing and marketing of Capacitive touch screen, Resistive touch screen, Industrial touch screen, IP65 touch screen, touchscreen monitors and integrated touchscreen PCs. Contact them at http://www.faytech.us, 121 Varick Street,3rd Floor,New York, NY 10013,+1 646 205 3214

  77. I got what you intend, regards for putting up.Woh I am thankful to find this website through google. «You must pray that the way be long, full of adventures and experiences.» by Constantine Peter Cavafy.

  78. MichaelJemery.com is a site with many hypnosis downloads. Whether you are looking for free hypnosis downloads, self hypnosis download for mp3, video and any audio files, Michael Jemery has the downloads for you. You can download hypnosis from apps, audio, mp3 and even youtube !

  79. I dugg some of you post as I thought they were very helpful very beneficial

  80. What’s up, constantly i used to check blog posts here in the early hours in the
    dawn, because i love to find out more and more.

  81. Fantastic beat ! I wish to apprentice while you amend your web site, how can i subscribe for a blog web site? The account helped me a acceptable deal. I had been a little bit acquainted of this your broadcast offered bright clear idea

  82. I don’t even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was good. I do not know who you are but certainly you’re going to a famous blogger if you aren’t already ;) Cheers!

  83. Very interesting info !Perfect just what I was searching for! «One man’s folly is another man’s wife.» by Helen Rowland.

  84. I will immediately clutch your rss as I can’t to find your e-mail subscription hyperlink or newsletter service. Do you have any? Please allow me understand in order that I may just subscribe. Thanks.

  85. Excellent article. I am experiencing many of these issues as well..

  86. Hello! I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could find a captcha plugin for my comment
    form? I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having trouble finding one?

    Thanks a lot!

  87. My spouse and i certainly enjoy writing and can create voice recordings customized just for you! I look ahead to chatting with you! I’ve obtained calls lately asking for issues that aren’t on my lists then I get bad opinions because of it. Please learn my Roles, Interests and also Secrets Lists and also please be aware that I don’t do racial humiliation, I don’t complete cam and I don’t masturbate for my callers.

  88. Hello, Neat post. There’s an issue with your website in web explorer, could check this… IE still is the marketplace chief and a large part of other people will omit your magnificent writing due to this problem.

  89. Great site. Lots of useful info here. I¡¦m sending it to several friends ans also sharing in delicious. And obviously, thank you for your sweat!

  90. Heya i’m for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It really useful & it helped me out much. I hope to give something back and aid others like you aided me.

  91. Howdy are using WordPress for your site platform? I’m new
    to the blog world but I’m trying to get started and set up
    my own. Do you require any html coding knowledge to make your
    own blog? Any help would be really appreciated!

  92. you are truly a good webmaster. The web site loading speed is incredible. It kind of feels that you’re doing any distinctive trick. Moreover, The contents are masterpiece. you have done a great job on this topic!

  93. Hello, Neat post. There is a problem together with your site in internet explorer, could test this… IE still is the market leader and a large element of folks will leave out your wonderful writing because of this problem.

  94. Its such as you read my mind! You seem to know so much approximately this, such as you wrote the e book in it or something.

    I feel that you could do with some p.c. to pressure the message home a little bit,
    however instead of that, this is great blog. An excellent read.
    I will definitely be back.

Оставить коментарий