Модификация готических соборов

Модификация многих готических соборов, вслед за тем как были замечены недостатки в конструкции ранее построенных зданий, сопоставима с аналогичными явлениями в наше время. Достаточно вспомнить опыт примене

ния крупноразмерных легких конструкций. Когда в июле 1940 г. был сооружен 854-метровый главный пролет подвесного моста через ущелье Такома, он был третьим по длине во всем мире. Более того, вес метра дорожного покрытия был намного меньше, чем в других длиннопролетных мостах. Этот мост воплотил в себе характерное для начала XX в. стремление к все более легким, почти ленточным дорожным фермам и стройным башням. Высота пролетных конструкций моста достигала всего 1/350-й части его длины.

Прошло четыре месяца после открытия моста. Однажды весьма устойчивый утренний ветер, имевший скорость более 60 км в час, вызвал сильные боковые колебания моста, и к полудню произошла катастрофа — мост обрушился. Непосредственно пострадавшей оказалась лишь собака, оставленная хозяином в автомобиле; косвенно же пострадала вся «тонкая эстетика» американских подвесных мостов. Многие из подвесных мостов, построенных

в период между двумя мировыми войнами, включая мост между Бронксом и Уайтстоуном в Нью-Йорке и мост через Золотые ворота в Сан-Франциско, были спешно укреплены добавлением тяжелых ферм. Поколение мостов, построенных после катастрофы, также имело такие фермы.

ТАКИМ образом, даже в нынешний век науки архитекторы и инженеры должны учитывать конструктивные достоинства и недостатки построенных сооружений, особенно тех, что намного крупнее ранее возведенных прототипов. Для достижения же наибольшего успеха необходимо быстрое распространение строительного опыта. Проведенные нами исследования готических конструкций позволили сделать заключение, что распространение такого опыта, хотя и не столь быстрое, имело место уже в XII столетии. В результате этого эмпирический подход к совершенствованию конструкций оказался весьма эффективным.

 

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