Научно-исследовательский медицинский центр Техасского университета

Какие ткани участвуют в удалении ЛНП из циркуляции? Д. Стейнберг из Медицинской школы Калифорнийского университета в Сан-Диего и

Дж.Дьетчи из Научно-исследовательского медицинского центра Техасского университета в Далласе показали, что у крыс, кроликов, морских свинок и обезьян- саймири около 75% опосредуемого рецепторами удаления ЛНП осуществляется в печени. Мы провели прямое определение количества рецепторов в клеточных мембранах, выделенных из различных тканей. Оказалось, что рецепторы ЛНП есть во многих тканях, но больше всего их в печени, надпочечниках и яичниках — органах, испытывающих особую потребность в холестероле.

Каково происхождение циркулирующих в кровотоке ЛНП? Механизм образования ЛНП оказался более сложным, чем механизм их захвата и деградации, и выяснен далеко не до конца. ЛНП — один из компонентов системы, обеспечивающей перенос по кровяному руслу липидных соединений двух классов: холестерола и различных триглицеридов. Транспорт липидов осуществляется двумя путями: экзогенным — для холестерола и триглицеридов, попадающих в кровь из кишечника, и эндогенным — для холестерола и триглицеридов, поступающих в нее из печени и других «некишечных» тканей.

Экзогенный путь был изучен Р. Хэвелом из Медицинской школы Калифорнийского университета в Сан- Франциско, а также другими исследователями. Он начинается в кишечнике, где содержащиеся в пище жиры упаковываются в липопротеиновые частицы, получившие название хиломикронов. Хиломикроны проникают в кровяное русло, откуда входящие в их состав триглицериды поступают в жировую ткань и там запасаются, и в мышцы, где окисляются и тем самым служат источником энергии. Остатки хиломикронов и в их составе эфиры холестерола удаляются из циркуляции с помощью специфических рецепторов, которые обнаружены только в клетках печени. Эти рецепторы для остатков хиломикронов не связывают ЛНП и не участвуют в удалении их из кровотока.

 

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