Оптические опыты с маленьким шариком от подшипника

Подумайте, какие можно найти применения маленькому шарику от подшипника. Вряд ли вам придет в голову изучать свойства света с помощью такого шарика или использовать его как линзу. Между тем шарик вполне годится и для того и для другого и поэтому может поведать кое-что о природе света.

Является ли свет волной? В начале XIX в. такое предположение многими оспаривалось. Физики продолжали придерживаться гипотезы Ньютона, который считал, что свет представляет собой поток мельчайших частиц. В 1818 г. О. Френель в дискуссии, устроенной Французской академией наук, предложил волновую модель света. В состав жюри вошли математики П. Лаплас и С. Пуассон и физики Д’Араго, Ж. Био и Ж. Гей-Люссак.

Против гипотезы Френеля выступал, в частности, Пуассон. Он предложил мысленный эксперимент, который, по его мнению, должен был опровергнуть предположение Френеля. Если на пути светового луча поставить непрозрачный круг, заявил Пуассон, то, в соответствии с рассуждениями Френеля, в центре тени на экране должно появиться светлое пятно. Поскольку этот вывод безусловно абсурден, модель Френеля неверна.

Араго быстро организовал эксперимент, воспроизводящий рассуждения Пуассона, и обнаружил пресловутое светлое пятно. Френель и его волновая гипотеза были реабилитированы. На самом деле ученые наблюдали такое пятно еще в 1773 г., однако это обстоятельство было забыто. В наше время это явление часто упоминается йод несколько ироническим названием «пятно Пуассона». Оно всегда окружено чередующимися темными и светлыми кольцами, располагающимися в области геометрической тени сферы или диска, которые используются в опыте.

Я фотографировал картинки, создаваемые маленьким шариком. Опыты организовал Д. Блашчак из Кливлендского университета.

 

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