Ориентации пластинки и шарика

Из-за наложения дифракционных картин изображения отверстий, полученные с помощью шарика, выглядят гораздо менее четкими, чем те, которые дает линза. В зависимости от ориентации пластинки и шарика это наложение может создавать совершенно различные картинки, на фоне которых зачастую трудно различить изображения отверстий.

Тот факт, что нам легко удалось получить изображение решетки, объясняется периодичностью ее структуры. Как правило, темные и светлые полосы в центре тени искажают изображение объекта. Когда в качестве объекта была выбрана решетка, эти полосы сами образовали решетчатую структуру, что и позволило увидеть изображение.

Рассуждения относительно изображений отверстий могут быть перенесены и на другие объекты. Например, отверстие в форме буквы I можно рассматривать как множество точечных отверстий, расположенных в соответствующем порядке. Каждое точечное отверстие создает свою дифракционную картину в области тени шарика. Центральные светлые пятна образуют на экране фигуру в виде буквы I.

В наших опытах каждое из этих светлых пятен иногда было окружено темным кольцом. Наложение таких картинок приводило к тому, что изображение буквы I оказывалось очерченным двумя темными линиями и таким образом выглядело более четким. То же наблюдалось, когда мы ставили слайд с буквой М. При правильном положении шарика изображения «ножек» буквы М напоминали изображения буквы

1,  а два внутренних отрезка выглядели как маленькие пятнышки.

Проволока, к которой был приклеен шарик, создавала свою дифракционную картину, во многих случаях накладывающуюся на центральную область тени. Чтобы избавиться от этой помехи, мы приклеили шарик к предметному стеклу микроскопа, которое прикрепили к микрометрическим винтам с помощью липкой ленты. Царапины на стекле вызывали некоторое искажение интерференционной картины в области тени, но все-таки эта картина выглядела более четкой.

 

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