Осуществление реакции с соляной кислотой

Это достигается путем расплавления полианилина (основания) для осуществления реакции с соляной кислотой; ионы водорода кислоты служат источником протонов. Образующийся в результате этого гидрохлорид имеет в 10" раз большую проводимость, чем исходный полимер.

Мак-Диармид и его сотрудники пока не установили, почему введение протонов так эффективно. Однако, когда модифицированные молекулы обрабатывают водным раствором основания, они быстро теряют электропроводные свойства. Это превращение можно использовать для более детального изучения обеих форм полианилина и явления проводимости в полимерах.

Полианилин можно широко применять в практических целях. Мак-Диар- мид с коллегами установили, что обе формы этого полимера могут быть легко восстановлены и снова окислены до исходного состояния. Поэтому их можно использовать в качестве электродов в подзаряжаемых батареях. В лаборатории авторов были изготовлены полианилиновые батарейки для карманных фонариков, которые можно неоднократно перезаряжать. По- видимому, промышленное производство таких батареек в будущем будет возможно, причем их стоимость должна соответствовать цене батареек одноразового пользования, применяемых в настоящее время.

Жилища из костей мамонта на Русской равнине

Сложность и устойчивость жилищ, построенных 15 тыс. лет назад общинами охотников-собирателей, позволяют предположить, что в конце великого ледникового периода в зоне приледниковой степи происходили значительные сдвиги в развитии первобытного общества.

 

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