Открытие рецепторов ЛНП

Представление о центральной роли рецепторов легло в основу лечения некоторых тяжелых наследственных форм атеросклероза, а также внесло ясность во все еще запутанный вопрос о роли состава пищи в развитии атеросклероза у населения в целом.

Все началось с того, что в 1973 г. в нашей лаборатории в Научно- исследовательском медицинском центре Техасского университета в Далласе были открыты рецепторы ЛНП. Мы изучали культуру клеток из кожи человека, называемых фибробластами. Как и все животные клетки, для построения своих поверхностных, или плазматических, мембран фибробласты нуждаются в холестероле. Было установлено, что клетки обеспечивают себя холестеролом, извлекая его из липопротеинов сыворотки культуральной среды. В сыворотке крови человека содержится смесь различных липопротеинов, но мы выяснили, что источником холестерола для фибробластов являются главным образом липопротеины низкой плотности. Нам удалось также показать, что такая избирательность обусловлена присутствием на поверхности клеток высокоспецифичных рецепторных молекул, которые связывают ЛНП и родственные им липопротеины.

Частица ЛНП представляет собой довольно большое сферическое образование, в котором имеется ядро, содержащее около 1500 молекул жирного спирта — холестерола. Каждая молекула холестерола связана эфирной связью с длинноцепочечной жирной кислотой. Ядро из эфиров холестерола окружено слоем фосфолипидов и неэтерифицированных молекул холестерола.



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