Первые шаги  к созданию моделей вулканов

При небольшой доле воды модель напоминала вулкан острова Стромболи: долговечный купол, сложенный распыленными частицами магмы диаметром несколько сантиметров; стоило погрузить расплав в воду — и он растрескивался на отдельные глыбы. При некой промежуточной пропорции (отношение воды к термиту приблизительно равно 1 : 3) мощные взрывы, порой сопровождающиеся ударной волной и свечением, выбрасывали высоко в воздух мельчайшие частицы магмы. Описанные выше эксперименты — лишь первые шаги на пути к созданию количественных моделей вулканов. Приведенные в статье фотографии поражают воображение, тем более что модели вулканов видны на фоне высоких пиков реального вулканического пепла (эксперименты проводились в окрестностях Хемес—Маун- тин, где несколько миллионов лет назад произошло извержение, оставившее гигантскую кальдеру).

Три следующие статьи посвящены сложным геологическим и геохимическим исследованиям, цель которых — расшифровать механизм очевидной связи между взрывным вулканизмом и столкновением плит. Особенно много

загадок таят районы северо-запада США, где взаимодействие плит носило крайне сложный характер, проявляясь порой в виде обширных участков сжатия, а порой — растяжения. В то время как происхождение Каскадных гор в результате субдукции океанической коры («пододвигания» ее под материковую) очевидно, остальная часть территории нынешних западных штатов в недавнем прошлом была свидетельницей самых различных форм вулканической активности. Ясно лишь, что вещество океанической коры играло и здесь первостепенную роль. Химический и изотопный анализы образцов показывают сложность их состава. Само собой напрашивается сравнение дрейфующих континентов с яхтой, имеющей глубоко погруженный киль: ведь в движение вовлекаются слои вещества до глубины в две сотни километров. Другой тип вулканизма, приводящий к образованию кимберлитовых трубок, обсуждается во вводной главе, написанной профессором Калифорнийского университета А. Беткером. Происхождение этих трубок и поныне вызывает споры, поскольку еще никому не посчастливилось присутствовать при их рождении.

Остальные статьи посвящены полевым исследованиям. Они касаются взрывной активности вулкана Ки- лауэа, Сент-Хеленс, а также вулканического прошлого Йеллоустонского национального парка.

 

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