Побочные влияния науки на технику

Работать в этой области вначале

остается примерно половина этих лиц, однако в дальнейшем наблюдается дополнительный отток кадров. В результате с 1974 г. установился приблизительно равновесный приток новых специалистов — около 50 человек в год. Мой опыт работы с аспирантами Колумбийского университета показывает, что оставшиеся 80 человек из тех, кто получает ежегодно степень доктора философии по физике элементарных частиц, находят занятия в самых разнообразных областях, таких, как промышленные разработки, преподавание, биофизика, информатика, финансы, менеджмент или бизнес. Сюда надо приплюсовать инженеров, техников и программистов, которые, получив подготовку по физике элементарных частиц, уходят затем на другую работу. Со времени второй мировой войны и до сегодняшнего дня «утечка умов» из сферы фундаментальных наук в значительной мере обеспечивает кадрами крупные технические проекты.

Чтобы продемонстрировать всю глубину и многообразие побочных влияний науки на технику, я вкратце остановлюсь на некоторых аспектах экспериментальных исследований в физике элементарных частиц, которые привели к появлению различных полезных устройств, нашедших применение в других областях науки и техники. Здесь вновь можно подчеркнуть, что физика элементарных частиц в этом смысле не уникальна. Фундаментальные исследования в химии, биологии, астрономии и других науках также привели к не менее разнообразным и интересным приложениям.

Ускоритель частиц был изобретен для бомбардировки атомных ядер частицами-«снарядами», имеющими большую энергию. Результаты этих опытов дают обширную информацию о структуре ядер. Применение ускорителей в промышленности не имеет почти ничего общего с их функциями в физике элементарных частиц. Они используются для проверки качества толстостенных стальных резервуаров и труб, в производстве радиоактивных изотопов для нужд медицины, при стерилизации пищи, в терапии опухолей и для дезинфекции сточных вод, используемых после этого как удобрение. Ускорители широко применяются и для получения данных, необходимых при проектировании реакторов деления и синтеза. Один из проектов получения энергии за счет синтеза предусматривает использование ускоренных пучков ионов, которые сожмут и подожгут небольшие таблетки ядерного горючего.



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