Полупроводниковые лазеры

В современных системах оптической связи используются полупроводниковые лазеры. Они имеют малые размеры (с крупинку соли), преобразуют импульсы электрического тока в импульсы света, потребляют незначительную электрическую мощность (единицы миллиампер при напряжении 1—2 В), могут генерировать свет в инфракрасном диапазоне (где оптические волокна наиболее прозрачны) и в отличие, скажем, от газовых лазеров, они стабильны и надежны.

Чтобы понять, какими преимуществами обладает С -лазер по сравнению с обычными полупроводниковыми лазерами, рассмотрим принцип действия последних. Полупроводник, как подсказывает само название, — это материал, электрические свойства которого занимают промежуточное положение между свойствами диэлектрика и проводника. В полупроводниках электроны, находящиеся на внешних оболочках атомов, при обычных условиях находятся в связанном состоянии (как в диэлектриках), но могут стать свободными (как в проводниках) при определенном внешнем воздействии.

В изолированном атоме количество энергии, приходящееся на каждый электрон (энергетический уровень электрона), строго лимитировано. Однако в твердом теле атомы образуют кристаллическую решетку; вследствие этого энергетические уровни отдельных атомов сливаются в широкие полосы разрешенных энергий, разделенные запрещенными зонами. В металле самая верхняя заселенная энергетическая зона (зона проводимости) только частично заполнена электронами, и в ней есть «вакансии» для свободных электронов. В диэлектрике заселенная верхняя (валентная) зона полностью заполнена, и широкая запрещенная зона расположена между ней и следующей вышележащей зоной проводимости, которая пуста. В полупроводнике валентная зона также заполнена, но следующая, более высокая зона отделена лишь небольшой запрещенной зоной.



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