Принцип действия

На этом явлении можно построить прибор, который будет работать как лазер. Принцип действия такого прибора основан на трех оптических процессах в полупроводниках: спонтанном поглощении, спонтанном излучении и вынужденном излучении. В спонтанных процессах носитель заряда (электрон или дырка)

при переходе из одной энергетической зоны в другую поглотает или испускает фотон. Энергия этого фотона равна ширине запрешенной зоны. Длина волны фотона определяется его энергией; следовательно, длина волны поглощенного или излученного полупроводником света задается выбором конкретного полупроводникового материала. Предположим, что электрон в валентной зоне поглощает фотон, энергия которого больше, чем ширина запрещенной зоны. Электрон перейдет в зону проводимости, образовав дырку в валентной зоне. Теперь предположим, что электрон находится в зоне проводимости; это возбужденное состояние — оно нестабильно. Через короткое время без каких-либо внешних воздействий электрон может перейти в валентную зону, при этом дырка исчезнет и излучится фотон, энергия которого точно равна ширине запрещенной зоны.

Третий основной процесс — вынужденное излучение, которое существенно для работы лазера. Оно происходит, когда фотон с энергией, равной ширине запрещенной зоны, «сталкивается» с электроном, находящимся в зоне проводимости. В этой ситуации электрон из зоны проводимости вынужден совершить переход в валентную зону и излучить фотон. Примечательно, что падающий фотон и фотон, излучаемый электроном, имеют не только одинаковую частоту, но и фазу, т.е. гребни и впадины их волн будут совпадать. Следует сказать, что переходы между энергетической зоной и уровнем энергии, занятым примесным атомом, и даже между двумя примесными уровнями сопровождаются испусканием фотона. Кроме того, энергия носителей зарядов в зоне проводимости и валентной зоне подчиняется статистическому распределению. Далее энергетические уровни примесных атомов образуют узкие полосы. По этим причинам электромагнитное излучение полупроводника происходит в узком диапазоне длин волн, а не на одной длине волны, определяемой шириной запрещенной зоны.

ЕСЛИ р — л-переход подключить к источнику электрического тока, то эта область в полупроводнике может стать превосходным излучателем света. При этом переход окажется под напряжением, которое отчасти будет компенсировать собственное (контактное) электрическое поле перехода.

 

105 Comments

  1. 958003 957491Oh my goodness! a wonderful post dude. Thanks Even so My business is experiencing concern with ur rss . Do not know why Struggling to join it. Is there anybody finding identical rss concern? Anyone who knows kindly respond. Thnkx 662306

  2. Thanks , I’ve recently been searching for information approximately this subject for a while
    and yours is the best I’ve discovered till now. But, what
    in regards to the bottom line? Are you sure about the source?

  3. I like it whenever people get together and share views.
    Great blog, continue the good work!

  4. I have read so many posts concerning the blogger lovers
    but this post is truly a good piece of writing, keep it up.

  5. Do you have a spam issue on this site; I also am a blogger, and I was wondering your situation; we have created some nice practices and we are looking to swap solutions with other folks, please shoot me an e-mail if
    interested.

  6. Fastidious answer back in return of this issue with real arguments and explaining the whole thing on the
    topic of that.

  7. Greetings from Idaho! I’m bored to death at work so
    I decided to browse your site on my iphone during lunch break.
    I really like the knowledge you present here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home.
    I’m amazed at how quick your blog loaded on my cell phone ..
    I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyways, very good site!

  8. Wow, incredible blog layout! How long have
    you been blogging for? you make blogging look easy.
    The overall look of your web site is magnificent, let alone the content!

  9. Thank you a lot for sharing this with all folks you really
    recognise what you’re talking approximately! Bookmarked.
    Please additionally consult with my site =). We will have
    a hyperlink exchange agreement between us

  10. Deon:

    Everything is very open with a really clear explanation of the
    challenges. It was truly informative. Your website is extremely
    helpful. Many thanks for sharing!

  11. Somebody essentially lend a hand to make seriously posts I
    might state. That is the very first time I frequented
    your website page and so far? I amazed with the analysis you made to make this particular put
    up amazing. Fantastic activity!

  12. Pretty nice post. I simply stumbled upon your weblog and
    wanted to say that I’ve really enjoyed browsing your weblog posts.

    In any case I will be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write once more
    soon!

  13. Have you ever considered creating an ebook or guest authoring on other sites?
    I have a blog based upon on the same subjects you discuss and would
    really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my audience would enjoy your work.
    If you are even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me
    an e-mail.

  14. Wonderful blog! I found it while searching on Yahoo News.
    Do you have any tips on how to get listed in Yahoo News?
    I’ve been trying for a while but I never seem to get there!
    Cheers

  15. Have you ever thought about creating an e-book or guest authoring on other websites?
    I have a blog based upon on the same subjects you discuss and would
    love to have you share some stories/information. I know my visitors would enjoy your work.

    If you are even remotely interested, feel free to send me an e mail.

  16. Truly no matter if someone doesn’t be aware of after that its up to other visitors that they
    will help, so here it occurs.

  17. I don’t even know the way I ended up right here, but I assumed this post used
    to be great. I don’t realize who you might be however certainly you are going to a famous
    blogger should you are not already. Cheers!

  18. Good way of describing, and nice article to get information concerning
    my presentation subject matter, which i am going to deliver in school.

  19. always i used to read smaller posts which as well clear their motive,
    and that is also happening with this article which I am reading now.

  20. Appreciate this post. Let me try it out.

  21. Why users still make use of to read news papers when in this technological world all is
    existing on web?

  22. Hurrah! In the end I got a web site from where I can really get useful data concerning
    my study and knowledge.

  23. It’s hard to come by educated people about this topic,
    but you sound like you know what you’re talking about! Thanks

  24. After looking over a number of the blog posts on your web page, I seriously like your technique of writing a
    blog. I added it to my bookmark website list and will be checking back in the near future.
    Please visit my website as well and let me know your opinion.

  25. I know this website presents quality depending articles and extra data, is there any other web page which offers such data in quality?

  26. Howdy just wanted to give you a brief heads up and let
    you know a few of the images aren’t loading properly.
    I’m not sure why but I think its a linking issue.
    I’ve tried it in two different web browsers and both show the
    same outcome.

  27. I all the time used to read piece of writing in news papers but now as I am a user of web thus from
    now I am using net for content, thanks to web.

  28. If some one wishes expert view on the topic of running a blog after that i suggest him/her
    to pay a quick visit this webpage, Keep up the fastidious job.

  29. You really make it seem really easy with your presentation however I in finding this
    topic to be actually something that I think I
    might by no means understand. It sort of feels too complicated and extremely broad for me.
    I’m having a look ahead in your subsequent post, I’ll try to get
    the grasp of it!

  30. Thanks for sharing such a good thought, piece of writing is
    pleasant, thats why i have read it completely

  31. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as
    though you relied on the video to make your point. You obviously know what youre talking about, why waste your intelligence on just
    posting videos to your site when you could be giving us
    something enlightening to read?

  32. Everyone loves what you guys are up too. This sort of clever work and coverage!
    Keep up the good works guys I’ve added you guys to blogroll.

  33. Appreciate the recommendation. Let me try it out.

  34. I think this is one of the most vital info for me. And i am glad
    reading your article. But want to remark on few general things, The website style is wonderful,
    the articles is really excellent : D. Good job, cheers

  35. I do not know if it’s just me or if perhaps everyone else encountering problems with your blog.

    It appears as though some of the text on your content are running off
    the screen. Can somebody else please comment and let me know if this is happening to them too?

    This might be a issue with my browser because I’ve had this happen before.
    Thanks

  36. Good day! Would you mind if I share your blog with my myspace group?
    There’s a lot of people that I think would really appreciate your content.
    Please let me know. Cheers

  37. Thank you for another fantastic article. The place else may anybody get that type of info in such an ideal way of writing?
    I have a presentation subsequent week, and I am at the search
    for such info.

  38. When I originally commented I seem to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on whenever
    a comment is added I get four emails with the exact same comment.
    Perhaps there is an easy method you are able to remove me from that service?
    Kudos!

  39. These are genuinely impressive ideas in concerning blogging.
    You have touched some good factors here. Any way keep up wrinting.

  40. I simply want to tell you that I’m beginner to blogging and site-building and truly liked your web-site. Very likely I’m planning to bookmark your site . You actually have remarkable articles and reviews. Regards for sharing your blog.

  41. Wow! At last I got a webpage from where I be capable of really
    get helpful data regarding my study and knowledge.

  42. I really like what you guys are up too. This
    kind of clever work and exposure! Keep up the amazing
    works guys I’ve added you guys to blogroll.

  43. Wow! After all I got a blog from where I be able to in fact take useful facts
    concerning my study and knowledge.

  44. Hey, I think your blog might be having browser compatibility issues.
    When I look at your blog in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it
    has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up!
    Other then that, superb blog!

  45. This is a topic that is near to my heart… Cheers! Where are your contact details though?

  46. I’ll immediately clutch your rss feed as I can not find your email subscription hyperlink or e-newsletter service. Do you have any? Kindly allow me recognise so that I may subscribe. Thanks.

  47. Hey! Do you know if they make any plugins to protect against hackers?
    I’m kinda paranoid about losing everything I’ve worked hard on.
    Any suggestions?

  48. It’s actually a nice and helpful piece of information. I’m satisfied that you simply shared this helpful info with us.
    Please keep us informed like this. Thanks for sharing.

  49. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you create this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you?
    Plz respond as I’m looking to design my own blog and would like to find out where u got this from.
    thanks

  50. I simply could not leave your website before suggesting that I really enjoyed the usual info a person supply on your visitors? Is gonna be back incessantly in order to check up on new posts.

  51. Howdy! I could have sworn I’ve visited your blog before but after browsing through some of the posts
    I realized it’s new to me. Regardless, I’m definitely pleased I stumbled upon it and I’ll be book-marking it and
    checking back frequently!

  52. Aw, this was an extremely good post. Finding the time and actual effort
    to make a good article… but what can I say… I procrastinate
    a lot and don’t manage to get nearly anything done.

  53. hey there and thank you for your information – I’ve certainly picked up something
    new from right here. I did however expertise some technical issues
    using this site, since I experienced to reload the website lots of times previous to I could get it
    to load properly. I had been wondering if your web hosting is OK?
    Not that I’m complaining, but slow loading instances times
    will sometimes affect your placement in google and can damage your high quality score if advertising and marketing with Adwords.

    Well I’m adding this RSS to my e-mail and can look out for a lot
    more of your respective interesting content. Make sure you update
    this again soon.

  54. Hello there! Would you mind if I share your blog with my facebook group?
    There’s a lot of folks that I think would really appreciate your content.
    Please let me know. Cheers

  55. Hey! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any trouble with hackers?

    My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended
    up losing many months of hard work due to no backup. Do you
    have any methods to stop hackers?

  56. This information is invaluable. Where can I find out more?

  57. You can certainly see your expertise in the work you
    write. The sector hopes for even more passionate writers
    like you who are not afraid to say how they believe.
    All the time go after your heart.

  58. I haven’t checked in here for some time as I thought it was getting boring, but the last few posts are great quality so I guess I will add you back to my daily bloglist. You deserve it my friend :)

  59. I like this post, enjoyed this one thankyou for posting .

  60. Very interesting info!Perfect just what I was searching for!

  61. My brother suggested I may like this website.
    He was once totally right. This publish truly made my day.
    You cann’t imagine just how so much time I had spent for this information! Thank you!

  62. I really appreciate this post. I have been looking all over for this! Thank goodness I found it on Bing. You have made my day! Thank you again!

  63. Highly energetic blog, I loved that bit. Will there be a part
    2?

  64. I like this web blog so much, saved to fav. «Respect for the fragility and importance of an individual life is still the mark of an educated man.» by Norman Cousins.

  65. Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your blog and in accession capital to assert that I acquire actually enjoyed account your blog posts.
    Anyway I will be subscribing to your feeds and even I achievement you access consistently fast.

  66. When someone writes an article he/she maintains the idea of a user in his/her brain that how
    a user can know it. Therefore that’s why this piece of writing is great.
    Thanks!

  67. Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to “return the favor”.I’m attempting to find things to improve my site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  68. I’m not sure where you’re getting your info, but great topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more. Thanks for magnificent info I was looking for this info for my mission.

  69. Some truly nice and utilitarian info on this site, too I conceive the style has got fantastic features.

  70. This is a very good tip especially to those new
    to the blogosphere. Short but very precise information…
    Appreciate your sharing this one. A must read article!

  71. Having read this I thought it was rather enlightening. I appreciate you finding the
    time and effort to put this article together. I once again find myself personally spending way too much time both reading and leaving comments.
    But so what, it was still worthwhile!

  72. An effective web site gets a lot of procedures. An efficient process flow will help you’ll more in determining the needs and goals of your business web site. Good guidelines may possibly help you to work better and helps eliminate flaws and other pointless stuff.These three voices, the creator, the realist, along with the critic all need to become heard, even though at one time. According to Dilts, what Disney did was create three separate environments. Disney’s creative process starts each morning creativity room. In this room no amount of reality or criticism is allowed.On that main page there are usually a button that says create site now. Push that button and make out the information requested on the next website. When finished there go ahead and press the continue button. This particular page search for need enter into your blog address and also the title of your blog. Accessories as whole be whatever you want. Proceeding that you need to go into the visual confirmation and click on the continue icon. This next page is fun because you obtain to choose how web site will research. When you made the decision just select continue in addition to website has finished.While this site usually sees a decline in traffic a result of school being out, september has seen an increase over past years. By June 30th, 2006, ask a librarian had assisted 15,502 online surfers. For the same time period this year, the site has seen 32, 751 visitors. Talk about an increase in traffic. Should you so choose the math, that for you to a 47 percent increase over duration period for last twelvemonth. In June alone for this year, they assisted 2,287 persons via the live gossip. The site states that this was an increase over live chat sessions during June of 2004.The best part about being an affiliate is you do not need to have effective in hand to promote it – essentially you are receiving the product dropshipped.After more than one cycles through this system, the ideas are fresh, will stand the test of reality and satisfy the critics. The key is to focus each treatment. When creating, create. When being a realist regarded as realist and, only criticize when the actual world critic feature. You do not necessarily need to split up spaces, about the will make it possible for. Once people realize that a room or specific space is reserved for a particular mindset, they’ll focus their thoughts with a task handy.Once possess the final and killer Phoenix web site design page, you’ll must have to turn it into the genuine and live free sex. You must be start producing your HTML and CSS templates. Having your base template, famous . where your Meta tags and title descriptions is actually seen. Lie down the main section and the contents from the web page as soon as to be able to finished the same, may do now start to validate and test promotion.#3 RUSSIAN FRIENDSEARCH RussianFriendSearch offers millions of photo profiles of men seeking women, women seeking men, men seeking citizens seeking women for friendship, relationship, dating, or have a weakness for! Includes Christian singles and Russian personals. RussianFriendSearch welcomes men from all around the world.On March 5th for that fourth consecutive PaleyFest from a row, Community returns clear at 7 p.m. (live-stream to start at 7:30 p.m.). During this time the cast and creative team in attendance will be new EPs Russ Krasnoff, David Guarascio, and Moses Port, as well as EP/Director Tristram Shapeero, as well as the cast: Joel McHale, Gillian Jacobs, Yvette Nicole Brown, Danny Pudi, Alison Brie, and Jim Rash. TVGuide Magazine’s Michael Schneider will moderate.I experienced great success with wedding users and attendents methods, both on long and short trips away from home. Be creative and attempt out various options to determine what works the best for you. Safe travels!

  73. Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wanted to say that I’ve really enjoyed surfing around your blog posts. In any case I will be subscribing to your rss feed and I hope you write again soon!

  74. I got what you mean , thanks for putting up.Woh I am lucky to find this website through google. «Delay is preferable to error.» by Thomas Jefferson.

  75. Thanks for sharing excellent informations. Your web site is very cool. I’m impressed by the details that you have on this site. It reveals how nicely you understand this subject. Bookmarked this website page, will come back for extra articles. You, my friend, ROCK! I found simply the info I already searched all over the place and just could not come across. What an ideal website.

  76. I do consider all of the ideas you’ve presented for your post. They’re really convincing and can certainly work. Still, the posts are too quick for novices. May you please extend them a bit from subsequent time? Thanks for the post.

  77. Some truly prize articles on this internet site , bookmarked .

  78. Nice blog here! Also your website loads up very fast! What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my website loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  79. Thanks for your personal marvelous posting! I truly enjoyed reading it,
    you’re a great author.I will remember to bookmark your blog and will come back
    someday. I want to encourage you continue your great work, have a nice afternoon!

  80. Some truly great articles on this site, thanks for contribution. «There is one universal gesture that has one universal message–a smile» by Valerie Sokolosky.

  81. We’re a group of volunteers and starting a new scheme in our community. Your web site provided us with valuable info to work on. You have done an impressive job and our entire community will be grateful to you.

  82. Faytech North America is a touch screen Manufacturer of both monitors and pcs. They specialize in the design, development, manufacturing and marketing of Capacitive touch screen, Resistive touch screen, Industrial touch screen, IP65 touch screen, touchscreen monitors and integrated touchscreen PCs. Contact them at http://www.faytech.us, 121 Varick Street,3rd Floor,New York, NY 10013,+1 646 205 3214

  83. I think this is one of the most important info for me.
    And i’m glad reading your article. But should remark on few general things, The site style is great, the articles is really
    excellent : D. Good job, cheers

  84. Absolutely written subject material, Really enjoyed reading through.

  85. Normally I do not read post on blogs, but I would like to
    say that this write-up very compelled me to take a look at and
    do it! Your writing taste has been amazed me.
    Thank you, very great article.

  86. MetroClick specializes in building completely interactive products like Photo Booth for rental or sale, Touch Screen Kiosks and Digital Signage, and experiences. With our own hardware production facility and in-house software development teams, we are able to achieve the highest level of customization and versatility for Photo Booths, Touch Screen Kiosks and Digital Signage. MetroClick, 121 Varick St, #301, New York, NY 10013, +1 646-843-0888

  87. Wow! This could be one particular of the most beneficial blogs We have ever arrive across on this subject. Actually Wonderful. I’m also a specialist in this topic so I can understand your hard work.

  88. I genuinely enjoy reading on this site, it has got excellent blog posts. «Literature is the orchestration of platitudes.» by Thornton.

  89. Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your weblog and in accession capital to assert that I get actually enjoyed account your blog posts. Anyway I’ll be subscribing to your feeds and even I achievement you access consistently rapidly.

  90. As I website possessor I believe the content material here is rattling wonderful , appreciate it for your hard work. You should keep it up forever! Best of luck.

  91. Fantastic beat ! I would like to apprentice while you amend your site, how can i subscribe for a blog site? The account aided me a acceptable deal. I had been tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast offered bright clear idea

  92. Woah! I’m really enjoying the template/theme of this blog.
    It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s hard to get
    that «perfect balance» between usability and appearance.
    I must say you’ve done a very good job with this. Additionally, the blog loads very quick for
    me on Safari. Superb Blog!

  93. I like this post, enjoyed this one thank you for posting. «Pain is inevitable. Suffering is optional.» by M. Kathleen Casey.

  94. I merely hope to inform you you that I am new to online blogging and undeniably admired your post. Most likely I am inclined to bookmark your blog post . You seriously have superb article blog posts. Delight In it for share-out with us your current domain document

  95. Nice read, I just passed this onto a friend who was doing some research on that. And he just bought me lunch because I found it for him smile So let me rephrase that: Thanks for lunch! «Life is a continual upgrade.» by J. Mark Wallace.

  96. You actually make it appear really easy together with your presentation however I in finding this matter to be actually one thing that I think I might by no means understand. It sort of feels too complicated and very vast for me. I’m having a look ahead in your subsequent post, I¡¦ll attempt to get the grasp of it!

  97. I¡¦ve been exploring for a little for any high quality articles or weblog posts in this kind of house . Exploring in Yahoo I eventually stumbled upon this website. Reading this information So i am happy to exhibit that I’ve a very good uncanny feeling I found out exactly what I needed. I so much definitely will make certain to don¡¦t overlook this site and provides it a glance on a relentless basis.

  98. Faytech North America is a touch screen Manufacturer of both monitors and pcs. They specialize in the design, development, manufacturing and marketing of Capacitive touch screen, Resistive touch screen, Industrial touch screen, IP65 touch screen, touchscreen monitors and integrated touchscreen PCs. Contact them at http://www.faytech.us, 121 Varick Street,3rd Floor,New York, NY 10013,+1 646 205 3214

  99. Hello to every body, it’s my first pay a visit of this web site;
    this web site contains amazing and in fact excellent stuff designed for visitors.

  100. I’m very pleased to uncover this page. I need to to thank you for ones time for this particularly fantastic read!! I definitely appreciated every bit of it and I have you book-marked to check out new things on your web site.

  101. Very quickly this website will be famous amid all blogging and site-building viewers, due to it’s fastidious articles

  102. MetroClick specializes in building completely interactive products like Photo Booth for rental or sale, Touch Screen Kiosks and Digital Signage, and experiences. With our own hardware production facility and in-house software development teams, we are able to achieve the highest level of customization and versatility for Photo Booths, Touch Screen Kiosks and Digital Signage. MetroClick, 121 Varick St, #301, New York, NY 10013, +1 646-843-0888

  103. Good day there, just turned out to be mindful of your writings through Bing and yahoo, and found that it is very informational. I’ll take pleasure in if you persist this post.

  104. I¡¦ll right away seize your rss as I can’t in finding your email subscription link or newsletter service. Do you’ve any? Kindly permit me recognize in order that I may just subscribe. Thanks.

Оставить коментарий