Распределение темных и светлых участков

Если на пути светового пучка за шелью поставить экран, скажем лист бумаги, это расхождение можно увидеть. Одни участки листа оказываются освещенными, поскольку отдельные волны приходят сюда в фазе и их интенсивности складываются (гребни волн достигают этих участков одновременно и волны взаимно усиливаются). Другие участки листа оказываются темными, поскольку волны приходят к ним в противофазе и ослабляют друг друга (гребень одной волны попадает на впадину другой, и волны гасятся).

Распределение темных и светлых участков зависит от ширины шели. Пусть щель имеет вид прямоугольника, длинные стороны которого вертикальны. Такая щель создает на экране картину, сжатую по вертикали и растя

нутую по горизонтали; она называется дифракционной картиной.

В ряде случаев форма отверстия и создаваемая им дифракционная картина связаны друг с другом довольно просто. Например, отверстие в форме буквы Н состоит из трех щелей. Короткая горизонтальная щель создает вертикальную дифракционную картину, а две вертикальные щели — перекрывающиеся горизонтальные картины. Попробуйте угадать, какие формы имеют отверстия, которые создают дифракционные картины, изображенные на нижнем рисунке на с. 85. Каждое отверстие соответствовало заглавной готической букве, которую я печатал на гладкой бумаге. Каждую из букв я фотографировал на фотопленку. После проявления на слайдах прозрачными оказывались только изображения букв.

Для того чтобы получить дифракционную картину, я помещал слайд в пучок света гелий-неонового лазера так, чтобы буква была освещена целиком. По другую сторону слайда на расстоянии 20 м от него я устанавливал фотоаппарат и, передвигая объектив, добивался того, чтобы дифракционная картина сфокусировалась на пленке.

Выключив комнатное освещение, я фотографировал картину при различных выдержках. Сможете ли вы опознать буквы по их дифракционным картинам? Буквы расположены в том порядке, как они стоят в фамилии человека, деятельность которого уже давно связана с журналом «Scientific American». Я лишь убрал повторяющиеся буквы; не могу поручиться, что картинки не перевернуты.

В том случае, когда отверстие круглое, удобно использовать другой способ для объяснения явления дифракции. В этом случае при прохождении света через отверстие фронт волны представляют разбитым на так называемые зоны Френеля, располагающиеся концентрически относительно центра. Каждая из зон посылает свет на экран, в результате чего на нем наблюдается дифракционная картина в виде колец.

Рассмотрим центральную точку этой картины.

 

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