Рефракция света

Поскольку дифракция света на шарике приводит к проникновению света в область тени, шарик может «создавать» на экране изображения объектов.

действуя подобно выпуклой линзе. Разница лишь q том, что здесь изображение возникает не за счет рефракции света, а за счет его дифракции. Блашчак и я пришли к выводу, что шарик более удобен для получения изображений, чем диск, поскольку последний труднее ориентировать в пучке света так, чтобы он «вырезал» правильный круг.

Сначала мы добились того, что получили на экране четкие дифракционные кольца. Затем в пучок света был помещен слайд — прозрачная цифра 2 на непрозрачном фоне. Хорошо освещенная цифра создавала дифракционную картину на самом шарике. Затем, постепенно передвигая шарик, мы пытались получить изображение цифры 2 в области тени на экране.

Эксперимент долго не удавался. Мы заняли под установку два смежных помещения и таким образом увеличили базу до 80 м. Лазер находился в одном конце установки, экран в виде листа бумаги — в другом, а шарик — примерно посередине. С помощью двух микрометрических винтов можно было с большой точностью регулировать положение рамы, в которой был подвешен шарик.

Одна из помех состояла в том, что проволока, к которой был приклеен шарик, создавала свою дифракционную картину. Иногда эта картина накладывалась на область тени шарика, где мы пытались отыскать изображение цифры 2. Мы экспериментировали и с другими цифрами и буквами.

В конце концов мы взяли слайд с изображением решетки из черных линий; расстояние между линиями было около 2 мм. Блашчак высказал предположение, что периодически повторяющаяся картина должна предъявлять менее строгие требования к выбору местоположения шарика. Он оказался прав. Рассматривая область тени шарика, мы нашли в ее центре изображение решетки. За пределами тени наблюдалась собственно дифракционная картина решетки, создаваемая теми лучами, которые проходили мимо шарика.

 

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