Результаты полета спутника ИРАС

Результаты полета спутника ИРАС затрагивают широкий круг астрономических проблем — Солнечную систему, близкие звезды и межзвездное пространство, удаленные районы Млечного Пути, другие галактики и, наконец, квазары и аналогичные экстремально далекие объекты. Собранная спутником информация впервые дала детальное представление о том, как выглядит небо при наблюдении в дальней ИК-области.

Полученная картина зависит в какой- то степени от пространственного, или углового, размера изучаемых деталей

и,  конечно, от длины волны излучения, на котором ведется наблюдение. Зарегистрированные на самых коротких волнах точечные источники — это горячие звезды, у которых наблюдается длинноволновой «хвост» непрерывно

го спектра с максимумом в видимой области. Сильная концентрация звезд характерна для направлений, близких к галактическому диску Млечного Пути. На более длинных волнах точечные источники вне плоскости Млечного Пути оказались в основном другими галактиками, излучение которых содержит составляющую с эффективной температурой 20—60 К. Как и следовало ожидать, зарегистрированные галактики распределены в пространстве очень равномерно. Распределение звезд и галактик показано внизу на с. 20.

Наблюдения звезд предоставили также в распоряжение ученых новый метод изучения общей формы и структуры Галактики. Выбирая из каталога точечных источников те, которые удовлетворяют определенным критериям, можно анализировать разные составляющие Галактики. В частности, существует класс ярких ИК- источников, которые можно выбрать по сильному излучению на длинах волн 12 и 25 мкм и по значительно более слабому на других волнах. Это, вероятно, горячие звезды (с температурой несколько тысяч градусов), окруженные более холодным веществом (с температурой несколько сотен градусов).

Распределение этих источников приведено вверху на с. 21; на этом изображении ясно видны центральное сгущение (балдж) и тонкая полоса, видимо, представляющая собой галактический диск. Подобные центральные сгущения легко наблюдаемы в других галактиках, но увидеть общую форму нашей Галактики из того места внутри диска, где мы находимся, до сих пор было невозможно.



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