Рост мозга

Продолжают ли нейроны размножаться в мозгу взрослого животного? Обычно считают, что у позвоночных они к этому не способны. Однако работы биологов из Рокфеллеровского университета показывают, что и здесь нет правил без исключений. Дж. Пэтон и Ф. Ноттебом сообщают в журнале «Science», что в мозгу взрослых канареек периодически возникают функционирующие нейроны, в частности в ядре, которое контролирует их голосовые сигналы. Песня у этих птиц играет

важную роль при спаривании, и известно, что соответствующие ядра их мозга в зависимости от сезона то увеличиваются, то сокращаются в соответствии с содержанием в крови половых гормонов.

Открытие произошло во время исследований, в которых Ноттебом и его коллеги пытались выяснить клеточные основы такого колебания размеров ядер. Они показали, что изменяются как размеры клеток, так и их взаимное расположение и что, кроме того, имеет место размножение ненейронных клеток. Неожиданно в одном из контрольных опытов Ноттебом и С. Голдмэн, к своему изумлению, получили данные, говорящие о том, что при увеличении ядра происходит пролиферация и самих нейронов. Исследователи тотчас занялись проверкой этого удивительного результата. По словам Пэтона, контроль вырос в эксперимент.

Чтобы обнаружить возникающие нейроны, в течение определенного времени взрослым канарейкам вводили меченный тритием тимидин — предшественник ДНК. Во всех клетках, образовавшихся за это время, радиоактивная метка включится в материал клеточного ядра, и их будет нетрудно выявить. Через 30 дней после заключительной инъекции меченого тимидина был проведен учет функционирующих нейронов в ядре, контролирующем пение птиц. С помощью микроэлектродов, которые вводили птицам в мозг, определяли электрическую активность

отдельных нейронов. Каждую клетку, в которой был зарегистрирован электрический потенциал, метили малыми дозами пероксидазы хрена — фермента, обычно используемого для маркировки нейронов.

Когда мозг этих канареек исследовали цитохимическими методами, выяснилось, что из 74 нейронов, окрашенных с помощью пероксидазы хрена,  внесли в своих ядрах также и радиоактивную метку. Авторы пришли к выводу, что дважды меченные клетки представляют собой функционирующие нейроны, возникшие за те две неделя, когда птицам вводили радиоактивный ти- милин.

Пэтон и Ноттебом не первые, кто публикует данные, указывающие на размножение нейронов в мозгу взрослого животного, но в прежних работах принадлежность новообразовавшихся клеток к нейронам устанавливалась только на основе морфологических критериев, что давало повод для сомнений. Исследователи из Рокфеллеровского университета идентифицировали такие нейроны по функциональному признаку, поэтому их открытие — первое неоспоримое доказательство нейроногенеза в мозгу взрослого позвоночного.

 

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