Семена гнетума

У большинства представителей этого типа в соответствии с его названием семена «голые», т.е.расположены на растении открыто. Однако функционально семена гнетума представляют собой своего рода плоды. Каждое семя заключено в мясистый покров толщиной около 2 мм, который содержит сладкий сок. Я заметил, что один из видов туканов кормится семенами гнетума так же, как и семенами цветковых растений: проглатывает мясистое семя целиком и отрыгивает «косточку», что часто происходит довольно далеко от родительского растения. Поскольку гнетуму удается выживать, несмотря на то что популяция его представлена разбросанными на значительные расстояния экземплярами, а растение это раздельнополое, не исключено, что оно имитирует покрытосеменные и во втором их важнейшем признаке, и его пыльцу распространяют насекомые (неясно только, каким образом гнетум привлекает опылителей — ничего похожего на цветочный нектар в нем не образуется). Согласно Дэвиду И Дебби Кларкам из Организации по исследованиям тропиков, другой сохранившийся в Финка-ла-Сельве представитель голосеменных — саговник Zarrtia, напоминающий внешне пальму, по- видимому, также распространяет семена и опыляется при помощи животных.

По иронии судьбы, теперь, когда перед нами открылась в подробностях жизнь дождевого тропического леса и, в частности, его полога, сам этот лес исчезает с лица земли. В работе «Изменения влажных тропических лесов» («Conversion of Tropical Moist Forests»), опубликованной в 1981 г. издательством National Academy Press, специалисты с тревогой указывают на то, что к концу нынешнего десятилетия от влажных тропических лесов Центральной Америки сохранится лишь небольшая часть. В глобальном масштабе ситуация выглядит ненамного утешительнее. Каждый год вырубается примерно 210 тыс. км2 коренных лесов, и прогноз П. Ричардса (см. Richards P. W. The Tropical Rain Forest. Scientific American, 1973, December) о том, что к 2000 г. дождевые леса в основном исчезнут с лица Земли, становится все более реальным. Поскольку леса сводятся главным образом для того, чтобы удовлетворить потребности растущего населения развивающихся стран в пахотных площадях, пастбищах и топливе, маловероятно, что эта тенденция сменится обратной.

С исчезновением дождевого леса планета потеряет множество видов животных и растений, а вместе с ними и значительную часть своего генетического разнообразия. Национальный научно-исследовательский совет предсказывает, что более половины ныне существующих видов флоры и фауны исчезнет уже к 2100 г., а новые данные об экосистемах тропического полога говорят о том, что эта цифра может быть и выше.

 

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