Систематические исследования

Результаты, подтверждающие гипотезу о роли рецепторов ЛНП, были получены в работе У. Хаззарла и его сотрудников из Больницы Джонса Гопкинса. Они показали, что если взрослые люди получают с пищей очень много холестерола (например, съедают помимо всего прочего три яичных желтка в день), то у них снижается количество рецепторов ЛНП (его определяли, прямо измеряя число рецепторов в циркулирующих лимфоцитах). Для окончательного доказательства гипотезы требуется, однако, исчерпывающее, с необходимыми контрольными опытами изучение скоростей метаболизма инъецированных ЛОНП и ЛНП у представителей популяций, характеризующихся низким и высоким потреблением жиров и различными средними концентрациями ЛНП в крови. Систематических исследований подобного рода пока что не проводилось.

Если гипотеза о роли рецепторов ЛНП правильна, то система рецепторов у человека рассчитана на то, чтобы функционировать при непривычно низких для нас концентрациях ЛНП в крови. Чтобы поддерживать такой уровень ЛНП, необходимо питание, существенно отличающееся от принятого в развитых странах. Наилучшая в этом смысле диета значительно более строга, чем те умеренные рекомендации, которые предлагает Американская кардиологическая ассоциация. Так, нужно полностью исключить из рациона яйца и молочные продукты, а

также резко ограничить потребление мяса и других источников насыщенных жиров.

Мы считаем, что такие чрезвычайные меры не обязательны для всего населения. Во-первых, радикальные изменения рациона в широком масштабе привели бы к серьезным экономическим и социальным последствиям. Во- вторых, не исключено, что при новом типе питания могут распространиться заболевания, предотвращаемые ныне как раз благодаря умеренному поглощению жиров. В-третьих, как показал опыт, американцы неохотно отказываются от своих привычек и приучить их к пище, практически лишенной жиров, будет непросто. В-четвертых, и это самое главное, в генетическом смысле люди довольно гетерогенны. В самом деле, среди жителей развитых стран, рацион которых богат жирами, только 50% умирают от атеросклероза, а остальные 50% устойчивы к этому заболеванию.

 

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