Сообщества опылителей

Поскольку сообщества опылителей обособлены друг от друга, обмен пыльцой между различными уровнями леса невелик, что с точки зрения переноса генетического материала приводит к такому же результату, как и географический барьер: подобно горной цепи или морскому проливу, стратификация опылителей должна благоприятствовать видообразованию. Прежде единый вид растений, одни экземпляры которого достигают полога, а другие остаются в подлеске, может быстро разделиться на две разновидности вследствие их генетической изоляции. Возможно, стратификация опылителей — одна из основных причин флористического разнообразия тропического леса.

Исследователи, занимавшиеся проблемой репродуктивной стратегии у растений дождевого леса, получили данные, подтверждающие, что для деревьев правилом является перекрестное опыление (эпифиты, которых редко посещают насекомые-опылители, возможно, пользуются самоопылением). В частности, К.Бауа из Массачусетского университета в Бостоне обнаружил, что 79% деревьев в сухом тропическом лесу Коста-Рики дают семена именно при перекрестном опылении. Бауа, Дж. Бич из Массачусетского университета в Амхерсте и я исследовали этот вопрос во влажном тропическом лесу Финка-ла-Сельвы и получили аналогичные результаты.

Обмену пыльцой на далеких расстояниях способствуют специфические типы связанного со сбором пиши поведения, которые наблюдаются у обитающих в пологе видов пчел. Один из таких способов сбора был впервые подмечен Джензеном, который назвал его «осмотром капканов». .Он чаше всего встречается в нижней части полога. Пчелы некоторых видов запоминают и неоднократно повторяют какой-то определенный маршрут, часто протяженностью в несколько километров, который приводит их к цветкам, дающим большое количество пыльцы. Такая стратегия позволяет им с выгодой использовать деревья, которые образуют немного, но зато высокопродуктивных с кормовой точки зрения цветков. Среди массы деревьев, растущих на пути, выбранном насекомыми, нередко попадаются и другие представители того же вида, которым пролетающие мимо пчелы служат переносчиками пыльцы. «Осмотр капканов» — альтернатива часто наблюдающейся у пчел стратегии сбора, при которой их привлекает обилие цветков и они значительную часть своего «рабочего дня» проводят на одном-единственном дереве.

 

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