Состав тропического дождевого леса

В состав тропического дождевого леса входят преимущественно покрытосеменные растения. К ним относятся деревья и травы, цветущие и образующие семена, заключенные в завязь материнскогб растения, которая у многих видов превращается при созревании в мясистый плод. Голосеменные, представители которых — хвойные породы — часто являются доминантами в лесах умеренной и арктической зоны, встречаются в тропических лесах редко. Однако вплоть до позднего мела, т.е. всего около 65 млн. лет назад, в тропиках преобладали именно голосеменные: саговники, гинкговые, хвойные. Чарлз Дарвин назвал их внезапную смену покрытосеменными «ужасной тайной». Почему ныне голосеменные занимают подчиненное положение в тропических лесах? Какими селективными преимуществами обладают покрытосеменные? Наблюдения в пологе дождевого леса подсказывают возможный ответ на эти вопросы.

В современном разнообразном по составу тропическом лесу, где преобладают покрытосеменные и где экземпляры одного вида растут далеко друг от друга, приспособленность голосеменных к переносу пыльцы ветром поставила бы их в явно невыгодное положение. Этот способ опыления эффективен только в более однородных лесных сообществах, где расстояния между растениями одного вида невелики. Однако Ф. Регэл из Миннесотского университета считает, что неэффективностью опыления упадок голосеменных еше не объясняется. В самом деле, прежде чем их зависимость от ветра превратилась в препятствие для размножения, покрытосеменные должны были стать достаточно многочисленными, чтобы изолировать отдельные экземпляры голосеменных друг от друга, а значит, первопричиной событий, приведших к расцвету покрытосеменных, был другой фактор.

По мнению Регэла, переломным моментом было появление плодоядных птиц, способных разносить семена на большие расстояния, — это произошло как раз в позднем мелу. Благодаря таким птицам у цветковых растений в полной мере проявилось эволюционное преимущество образования плодов, содержащих семена.

 

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