Совместное использование достижений

Благодаря этому вынужденное излучение у гетеролазеров наступает при относительно низком уровне тока. Активный слой может быть сделан в виде узкого стержня, окруженного широкозонными материалами. Такие приборы называются полосковыми гетероструктурными лазерами. Природа на этот раз была милостива: показатель преломления у материала активного слоя оказался больше, чем у окружающего широкозонного материала. В результате стержнеобразный активный слой в полосковом гетерострук- турном лазере действует подобно сердцевине оптического волокна: излучение, генерируемое в активном слое, захватывается, распространяясь вдоль полоски. Захватывание ценно потому, что процесс вынужденного излучения требует взаимодействия фотонов и возбужденных носителей зарядов. Совместное использование достижений в конструировании полупроводниковых лазеров, эффективных методов выращивания высококачественных кристаллов и технологических способов производства лазеров позволяют в настоящее время получать приборы, которые могут работать при комнатной температуре более миллиона часов при токе меньше 2,5 мА и напряжении I—2 В.

Но все это не дает права утверждать, что полосковые гетеролазеры являются идеальными для оптической связи. В первую очередь потому, что энергия излучения даже у полоскового гетеролазера скачкообразно перераспределяется по случайному закону на резонансных длинах волн. Скачки, называемые «модовым дроблением», доставляют особое беспокойство, когда при кодировании информации лазер быстро включается и выключается, чтобы получить нужную последовательность импульсов света. Явление

скачкообразного изменения энергии излучения нельзя не учитывать при создании систем оптической связи, в которых допустимая вероятность ошибки должна составлять один бит из I09 или даже из 101. Допустим, что два импульса света, испущенные лазером, предназначенным для работы в области 1,55 мкм (1550 нм), в действительности различаются по длине волны на

2   нм (т.е. на величину межмодового расстояния для резонатора длиной 250 мкм). Импульсы проходят 100 км в олномодовом световоде с сердцевиной из кварцевого стекла. Вследствие материальной дисперсии время передачи для «более синего» импульса (1548 нм) будет на 3,5 не меньше, чем для «более красного» импульса (1552 нм). В результате максимальная скорость передачи информации будет ограничена величиной 150 млн. бит/с; превышение этой скорости вызовет наложение импульсов один на другой.

 

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