Современные подходы в получении вакцин

Молекулярные и химические основы вирулентности и имму ногенности вирусов.

Под редакцией Роберта М. Чанока, Ричарда А. Лернера Modern Approaches то Vaccines: Molecular and Chemical Basis of Virus Virulence and Immunogenicity, edited by Robert M. Chanock and Richard A. Lerner. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory ($ 57)

ОБЛОЖКУ этого сборника трудов симпозиума украшает абстрактный рисунок: несколько тысяч черных точек, расположенных кругами в определенном порядке. Она иллюстрирует этап на пути к достижению желанной цели — получению рентгеновской дифракционной картины с высоким разрешением для кристалла полиовируса. Серия приблизительно из сотни подобных фотографий позволит вскоре получить данные для построения полной трехмерной модели вирусной частицы с атомным разрешением. До сих пор о вирионе полиовируса было известно лишь, что это икосаэдрическая структура приблизительно 300 А в диаметре, не имеющая почти никаких внешних отличительных признаков, и что она состоит из нескольких видов белковых молекул, которые окружают единственную короткую молекулу одноните- вой РНК. Теперь сделан новый шаг: в результате концентрирования вирусных частиц, которые выделяют в большом количестве как побочный продукт при приготовлении вакцины, удается получать крупные монокристаллы вируса (самые лучшие достигают миллиметра в поперечнике). Столь крупные нежные кристаллы весьма нестойки к действию рентгеновских лучей, однако щадящее охлаждение и новый метод сканирования позволили получить несколько фотографий. Нам уже известна вся последовательность скрытой в вирусной частице РНК длиной 7500 нуклеотидов. Следует ожидать, что вскоре будет составлена карта, по которой можно устанавливать соответствие между изменениями РНК-матрицы вируса и структурой его белков; она откроет путь планомерной разработки

безопасных, эффективных и специфичных вакцин на основе отдельных участков вириона, не способных самостоятельно вызывать заражение нервных клеток.

Разумеется, и сейчас борьба с вирусными заболеваниями идет довольно успешно. Накопив богатый опыт и вооружившись множеством испытанных вакцин, эпидемиологи покончили с вирусом оспы во всем мире. Однако даже при высоком уровне жизни люди по- прежнему страдают от гриппа, герпеса и гепатита, а скоту все еще серьезно угрожает вирус ящура. Более того, наша тактика борьбы с вирусами не лишена существенного риска: так, последняя кампания по предотвращению предсказанной эпидемии гриппа была сведена на нет множеством несчастных случаев, происшедших из-за неудачных препаратов вакцины. В сборнике представлены результаты текущих работ, которые проводятся по разнообразным тактическим планам, основанным на новейших сведениях о старом враге.

 

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