Спутник ИРАС

Спутник ИРАС работал почти в течение всего 1983 г., зарегистрировав изображение 98% небесной сферы. Полученные данные сполна вознаградили его создателей: были составлены карты яркости неба для четырех участков инфракрасной (ИК) области спектра и каталог около 250 ООО дискретных источников инфракрасного излучения. Это число поражает: за всю историю астрономии в каталогах было зафиксировано около 500 ООО таких источников.

Назначение спутника ИРАС как обзорного инструмента состояло в том, чтобы получить общий вид «инфракрасного» неба и отождествить объекты, заслуживающие дальнейшего исследования. Обе задачи были успешно решены. В Солнечной системе обнаружено несколько новых комет и две слабосветящиеся пылевые полосы нал поясом астероидов и под ним. Около одной из звезд, относительно близкой к Солнцу, найдена довольно плотная оболочка из вращающегося вокруг нее твердого вещества; оболочка, возможно, представляет раннюю стадию в формировании планетной системы. Во многих местах наблюдались рождающиеся звезды, еще окруженные «пеленой» из газа и пыли, из которых они сконденсировались. Получена четкая панорамная картина ядра Млечного Пути. Среди других зарегистрированных галактик есть такие, яркость которых более чем в 50 раз выше в ИК- области, чем в видимой области.

Инфракрасные наблюдения проводились и ранее — в узких «окнах» спектра излучения, доступного для наземных наблюдений на более коротких волнах, чем зарегистрированные спутником ИРАС. Для длинноволновых инфракрасных исследований телескопы поднимали на аэростатах, ракетах и высотных самолетах, но с помошью этих методов трудно сделать чувствительный обзор всего неба в дальней ИК-области. Такой обзор позволяет получить однородную картину, тогда как в наблюдательных программах, изучающих только избранные объекты, данные могут быть искажены в самом процессе их отбора. Спутник служит идеальной «платформой» для обзорной обсерватории.

 

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