Световой импульс

Вследствие этого световой импульс станет шире даже в одномодовом волокне. Это явление называется материальной дисперсией. Примечательно, что ход дисперсии меняет направление (в современных волокнах, в которых в качестве основы используется кварцевое стекло) в инфракрасной области спектра при длине волны около 1,33 мкм. Все волны длиной около 1.33 мкм распространяются почти с одинаковой скоростью. Однако в области длин волн короче 1,33 мкм «синяя» часть излучения распространяется медленнее, чем «красная», и, следовательно, достигает конца волокна позднее. В области же длин волн, больших

1.33   мкм, «синяя» часть достигает конца волокна быстрее, чем «красная».

Имеется еще одна проблема, которая ограничивает использование оптического волокна, — это оптические потери, т.е. потери энергии сигнала в нем. Они происходят вследствие рассеяния или поглощения света различными включениями в материале волоконного световода. В кварцевом стекле, например, потери становятся заметными при длинах волн, близких к 1,25 и 1,39 мкм. Потери на этих длинах волн возникают из-за поглощения света ионами гидроксила (ОН-), попадающими в стекло при его производстве. Вне этих двух максимумов в спектре потерь кварцевое стекло характеризуется плавным, но быстрым возрастанием потерь с уменьшением длины волны.

Чтобы уменьшить нежелательное влияние всех этих факторов, длину волны света необходимо тщательно подбирать. Для исключения влияния материальной дисперсии лучше всего использовать излучение с длиной волны

1.33   мкм, а чтобы устранить оптические потерн, предпочтительнее длина волны 1,55 мкм: при этой длине волны одномоловые волокна из кварцевого стекла имеют наибольшую прозрачность. Стратегическим направлением должно быть стремление использовать источник излучения с длиной волны 1,55 мкм с максимально возможной монохроматичностью; проблема материальной дисперсии при этом устраняется, поскольку излучение было бы на одной длине волны, а прозрачность световода для нее была бы максимальной. К сожалению, ни один обычный полупроводниковый лазер не генерирует излучение одной длины волны: в импульсном режиме он имеет спектральную ширину 5—10 нм.



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