Тайна разгадана

ДОКТОР Бейкер, зоолог из Манчестера, с уверенностью утверждает, что проблема, два столетия будоражившая умы исследователей, разрешена: «Теперь я впервые почувствовал, что с навигации голубей и птиц, мигрирующих на большие расстояния, сорваны покровы тайны». Его небольшая, богато иллюстрированная и изобилующая фактическими данными книга, содержащая подробный отчет об имеющихся экспериментальных данных, подтверждает этот вывод.

Голуби находят путь к дому, пользуясь составленной «в уме» картой местности. Наиболее детально они представляют себе окрестности своей голубятни, а картина отдаленных районов, до 1000 и более километров, постепенно, по мере накопления опыта, формируется из отдельных фрагментов. Такая «карта» позволяет приблизительно определять направления и расстояния, но она не опирается на какую-либо независимую от опыта птицы систему отсчета. Голубь запоминает совокупность крупных и мелких ориентиров, которые может видеть на земле; он составляет также карту запахов, а возможно, и крупных источников инфразвуков, недоступных для человеческого уха. Получающаяся в результате тройная карта используется вкупе с целым набором «компасов». Птицы ориентируются по магнитному полю и по солнцу, причем вводят поправку на время; когда солнечный диск скрывается в облаках, голуби могут находить нужное направление по картине распределения поляризованного света, а возможно, учитывают и эффект Доплера, когда определяют положение источника инфразвука. По ночам многие птицы, особенно мигранты, могут

уточнять свое положение в пространстве, пользуясь рисунком созвездий и, вероятно, местонахождением Луны. Даже птицы, впервые отправляющиеся в дальний перелет, умеют пользоваться «компасами», чтобы находить путь к цели и за пределами известной им территории. Возможно, они составляют планы местности при промежуточных посадках, и в результате у них складывается мозаичная карта маршрута, соединяющего несколько отдаленных, но хорошо изученных районов.

 

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