Ускорение электронов

Методы, разработанные для ускорения электронов, сейчас применяются для получения сгустков легких ионов высоких энергий. При попадании таких сгустков на небольшую поверхность в течение короткого времени развивается мощность несколько триллионов ватт; их можно использовать также для инициирования термоядерного синтеза при высоких температурах. Ускорители применяются для имплантации ионов в полупроводниковые материалы при производстве интегральных схем. Их используют для добавления ничтожных количеств редких металлов при. производстве сплавов, для исследования содержания углеводородов в породах, окружающих стволы скважин, для превращения некоторых пластмасс (из которых, в частности, изготовляют детские бутылочки и эластичные обертки для товаров) в материалы, которые не плавятся в горячей воде.

Электронные ускорители представляют собой источники синхротронного излучения — электромагнитного излучения, возникающего при отклонении заряженной частицы магнитным полем. В рентгеновском и ультрафиолетовом диапазонах синхротронное излучение на пять порядков интенсивнее излучения, получаемого от традиционных источников. Такая высокая интенсивность и широкий спектр делают синхротронное излучение полезным в целом ряде прикладных областей. Например, при производстве интегральных схем с помощью синхротронного излучения надеются добиться такой плотности электрических цепей в каждом кристалле, которая в сто и даже в тысячу раз превышает нынешнюю.

Синхротронное излучение может найти важные применения в медицине и биологии. Физиологи и медики считают, что оно будет полезным для наблюдения за состоянием венечной и других малых артерий при диагностике сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний или при изучении сосудистой системы.



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